Realism and Vanguard

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Realism: Realism is a cultural movement that appears in the second half of the nineteenth century as a result of social circumstances of the time: the consolidation of the bourgeoisie as the ruling class, industrialization, urban growth and the emergence of the proletariat. In principle it is a reaction against the idealism characteristic of Romanticism. According to a definition of the time, realism seeks the exact reproduction, sincere, full of social environment and the times we live in, this replica should be as simple as possible for everyone to understand. The novel is the literary genre characteristic this movement. This novel lives of bourgeois audience, and if in many cases the author simply excite or sustain intrigues own moral principles of the bourgeoisie, in other critique of bourgeois society from the inside with intent to portray and reform. A theme present in many realistic novels is the struggle between society and the individual, that has aexceptional importance the issue of adultery in a marriage imposed by social conventions, women without freedom and a lover dream activity as an escape: Flaubert's Madame Bovary, Tolstoy's Anna Karenina or The Regenta Clarin. The realism comes from France. A Balzac, La Comedie humaine, is considered the founder of the movement. In Spain has continued since 1868. The main representatives of this movement are: Juan Valera, Jose Maria de Pereda, Benito Perez Galdos, Leopoldo Alas Clarin and Emilia Pardo Bazan. In addition to the judge's wife, already mentioned, are core novels of this movement called "novels of contemporary life, ofBenito Perez Galdos. More than twenty novels, almost all located in Madrid, in which the author, free from ideological positions that he held in the novels of the early period, achieved through multiple characters a fresco of life in Madrid in the late nineteenth . These novels should quote the first, the disinherited, in which a young woman locked in a lunatic asylum are believed descended from an aristocratic and ends up in prostitution, Meow, where he recounted the travails of an unemployed during the time peaceful shift of Liberal and Conservative governments of the nineteenth century Misericordia is a portrait of the world of begging and especially Madrid Fortunata and Jacinta, one of the best novels in Spanish literature. This work in that mix, as in many novels of Galdós, elements of historical fiction and is subtitledTwo stories of married because she narrate the adventures of Juanito Santa Cruz, Master of affluent citizens in Madrid, married to her cousin Jacinta, who maintains relations with Lucky, a beautiful girl, belonging to the common people. When Fortunata Santa Cruz gets pregnant and this just leaves her in the world of prostitution, leaving to marry Maximiliano Rubin, but can not forget its attraction to Santa Cruz. But the book is much more than the story about adultery. Through the diversity of characters and environments, the author reconstructs the social life of Madrid in the last third of the last century salons of the aristocracy, the merchant bourgeoisie, beggars and the political climate of the First Republic and the restoration of the monarchy. The Pazos de Ulloa by Emilia Pardo Bazan, a novel halfway between Realism and Naturalism. It is situated in a secluded rural Galicia, where life goes marked by religion, witchcraft, politics and the most elemental passions. The descriptive power, the narrative of the decline of the rural aristocracy and the presentation of the intense passions are his most significant aspects.


Aesthetic movements of the Vanguard: After the First World War, the situation of European art is characterized by a remarkable complexity, develop so-called avant-garde movements, which in some countries, take on a profoundly radical and engage in the processing or criticism of existing society.
The profound crisis of values of the turn of the century leads to a rejection of reason, considering unable to understand life, so it gives primacy to the irrational, the unconscious. The art reflects this irrationalism rejecting the figurative, enthusiasm about the modern, by new modes of expression: photography, technology, movies and so on. Do not look for beauty and ugliness is incorporated as an important new category of art. The major avant-garde movements are:
Futurism: extols the myths and clichés of modernity: speed, machines, etc. force. They come to glorify the war and advocating the destruction of museums, libraries, everything associated with the traditional concept of art. Was important especially in Italy and its founder, Marinetti, was very close to fascism. Expressionism: a German-born movement that deforms the visible world as a means of transmitting to the receiver the tragic awareness of life. Expresses reality seen from a tormented me. It is characterized by strong colors, a certain black humor and an apology for the ugly. Painter Vasily Kandinsky is a representative of this movement can be found in the nonsensical expressionist elements of Valle-Inclan and Baroja's early works. Cubism: is characterized by a spirit of geometry. The Cubists analyze forms to its logical conclusion, breaking volume, studying their parts and reducing them to geometric shapes.Picasso and Juan Gris are the names most representative of this movement. The abstraction: the abstract artists want to create a pure art. In painting released into the pictorial elements, the shape and color of your car usual reality. Similarly developed by this time the concept of pure poetry. Dadaism: the First World War was a crisis of values that the Dadaists felt that only the protest, irrationalism, the absolute negation, anarchy was the consistent answers to the stupidity of the world. Surrealism in 1924 the poet André Breton in Paris published the first Manifesto of Surrealism. The new movement inherited from his predecessor,Dada, the idea that reason is just an annoying obstacle that hinders the development of creativity. Taking as its starting point the key work of Sigmund Freud The Interpretation of Dreams, conclude that the only way to remove the shackles of reason was to enable access to the subconscious. They chose two ways to "get inside" him, as the two-way surrealist techniques for Excellence: the automatic, which is, in essence, draw or write without logic, free and uncontrolled shaking hands or brush and disorientation reflexive procedure by which images objects emerging from the subconscious unite complete strangers to each other. Hispanic in the field must appoint two important aesthetic movements, and ultraismcreationism. Some of the writers of the generation of 27 actively participated in them, others such as Federico García Lorca's Poet in New York on or Vicente Aleixandre in the destruction or love have made important contributions to the Surrealist movement.



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