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• Reflects and Criticizes habits. Doesn’t speak about the serfs but about urban society.• Reflects and Criticizes characters: in The Overcoat he criticizes bureaucrats, depicts characters’ attitudes behavior.

• Realism: Omniscient Narrator, descriptions, linearity in action. • Humour, irony     

• Fantastic elements.

Theatre: The Inspector • Ignorance in provinces

• Bribes in Administration and bureaucracy (wrong things)• Corruption and bad Administration.

Short Stories: The Nose, The Overcoat

What these stories mean Is that reality is absurd. We start with absurd situations.

Absurd situations, humor >> absurd reality

Whereas Gogol focuses His attention in the absurdity of situations, adding irreal and comic elements, Dostoyevsky’s most important characteristic is psychological analysis, soul and human psyche. Tolstoi would add, as a different element, the use of the presence of God.

Liev N. Tolstoi • He belonged to a noble• Education >> was Interested on giving his serfs an education • Religion: Tolstoism he Developed a new religion

• There are 2 periods:

1. 1860-1880 >> Novels (aesthetic sense)

• Time (balanced, real Time)• Narrator (omniscient, “invisible”)• Characters (“real”)

• He wrote: War and Peace, Anna Karenina ,essays about Religion, Russia and

2. 1880 onwards

• Depression • He says that Literature is frivolous, fantastic, far from Christian moral principles (he stops writing novels). He keeps writing essays about education, religion and Russia (zars). His most important Essays were: • Whet shall we do the

• I cannot keep silent

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