old regime

Classified in Geography

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UNIT 1


The OR was the political, social and economic system that was found in many parts of Europe up to the 18th century. This type of society was based on estates and an agrarian economy, and was ruled by an absolute monarch.


A was the system of governament in many parts of 18th century Europe. Under absolutism, the monarchs hell full LE,EX and JU powers. They governed, intoduced laws and named judges.


-He decided laws and applied them through decrees.

-He headed the administration and led the army.

-He was the highest judicial authority.


UNIT 2


1-2This assembly lasted for less than a year, and  failed to attract much support. There was fierce opposition from the nobility and the clergy who didn’t want to give up their privileges. 2-3Following the insurrection of agust 1792 a National Convention governed France from september 1792. This abolished the monarchy and France became a republic. The Girondins controled the assembly. The convention judged and condemned Louis XVI for treason and he was executed by guillotine in Juanary 1793. 3-4Believimg that the revolution was in danger, the radical revolutionaries used seize power from the Girondins in June 1793. The Jacobin leader Maximilien Robespierre assumed all powers and established a dictadorship. The Reign of Terror was a ten-month period of vident represion. People who were suspected of opposing the Republic even if there was no proof against them. They were sentenced to death by the guillotine. In 1794 moderated revolutionaries arrested Robiespierre and his followers, who were then executed by guillotine.


UNIT 3


Farming Techniques: The three-field system of crop rotation, was replaced by the four-field system. The land was divided into four fields, which alternated wheat, turnips, barley and clover. The nutrients in the soil were not used up, as clover helped to replenish them. In addition, turnips and clover were used to feed livestock. This allowed farmers to keep more animals, wich increased manure, a natural fertilisert, in the fields.


The Industrial Revolution caused farm work to become machinesed, and made cities the centres of production. Many peasants migrated to cities in search of work, which led to intense urbanisation in Europe. In 1800, only 10% of the population live in cities but in the late 19th century the population was 40%. At the time cities did not have the capacity to absorb all rural population. As a result, 60 million europeans emigrated. The transport revolution made this movement of people possible.


Where movements that appear in Britain factory workers began organisin themselves to pressure factory owners to improve work conditions.

-Luddism: new technologies made skilled workers lose their jobs in the textile industry. In response some of them destroyed factory machines.

-Chartism: was the first organised labour movement with political goals. This movements presented its charter to the British Parliament.

-Trade unions: were societies which helped members in case of illness or unempleyment. These associations of workers demanded better salaries, shorter work days, an end to child labour...


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