1.THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. 1.1. THE CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION =Beginning 20th: Russia was a large empire governed by a Tsar of the Romanov dynasty. Time of social discontent for the middle and working class. The government was autocratic. The Tsar had all the power. Economic difference between the wealthy minority and the rest of the population. Result: the Revolution of 1905. The Tsar was forced to accept a parliament or duma and various reforms. However, the autocracy system continued. 1.2. THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1917 Reasons of the revolutions of 1917 =The enormous number of casualties from the First World War. and The enormous number of casualties from the First World War. Two revolutions:February Revolution and October Revolution .February Revolution = Tsar Nicholas II was deposed and a republic was established. The provisional government of the duma was liberal. So they promised >reforms and redistribución of land. Reality: Change was slow and the decision to continue with the war >Result: new government was brought to an end .The October Revolution: Radical Marxists (Bolsheviks). They deposed the bourgeois government and replaced it with a Bolshevik government. Lenin: took Russia out of the WW1 . Promised reforms: The redistribution of the land among the peasants. The control of the factories by workers. The nationalization of the banks and the transport system. !The government was taken over by: The Soviets and local councils of peasants and workers, which were initially freely elected. Later controlled exclusively by Bolsheviks. Between 1918 and 1921 there was a Civil War between: The Red Army, controlled by the Bolsheviks. The White Army, supported by conservatives, liberals and moderate socialists that opposed the radical reforms. The victory of the Red Army consolidated the Revolution. 1.3. Lenin’S GOVERNMENT (1921-1924) Under Lenin’s leadership the USSR (Union of Socialist Soviet Republics) was formed. It was composed of Russia and a number of Asian republics. Lenin adopted a New Economic Policy (NEP) combining communist and capitalist ideas. Result: the economic situation improved.1.4. STALIN’S GOVERNMENT (1927-1953) After Lenin’s death Stalin established a totalitarian regime characterized by the elimination of any opposition. Stalinism also nationalized means of production: ¡ The land was in the hands of cooperatives of workers.Industry and the banks were run by the state. The economy was reorganized according to five-year plans. These established a set of objectives that had to be met after a period of five years. As a result of these measures the USSR became an economic and military world power.