The revolutions of february an octuber 1917: The Rusian Revolution began in february 1917, when protest anvolving peasants, workers and soldiers forced Nicholas II to abdicate.
At first the Mensheviks formed a provisional government. The Provisional Government declared Russia a republic , and made political parties legal. However, Lenin´s Bolsheviks opposed the Mensheviks, and established an alternative government based on the soviets.
In october 1917 there was another revolution. The Bolsheviks seized control of the govermentand Lenin became the new leader of Russia. One os his first action was to sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the German Empire in March 1918. This allowed Russia to withdraw from an umpopular war, but in return the Bolsheviks agreed to give large amounts of land and rresources to Germany.
After talking power, the Bolsheviks began persecuting their opponetns. In July 1918, they killed the tsar and his family. In response to these events, a Civil War broke out between the White Russians, who were counter-revolutionaries, and the Bolshevik forces, kwonw as the Red Army.
The Red Army eventually won the Civil War. In 1922, Lenin established the Union of Soviet Socialst Republics, commonly kwown as the USSR or Soviet Union. He also approved a new constitution based on Communist principles.
In the USSR, Karl Marx´s idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat was put into practice through a system in which workers´interest were represented by one of the political party: the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. They also controlled the soviets, which directed all state institutions. Under this Communist system, the state also controlled the means of the production, such as factories and energy sources, as well as trade and fiance