Romanticism was a cultural and artistic movement that emerged in Germany and England in the late s. XVIII and XIX. This stream was the beginning of modernity and, though in complex ways laid the foundation of the ideology of bourgeois liberal state. Features: 1. Freedom and individualism, romanticism implied the importance of individual freedom and affirmed its supreme value: moral freedom political and artistic. 2. Subjectivity and sentiment, is claimed subjective conception of reality, inner world of the romantic self. 3. Existential anguish, the yearning for freedom, the ideal of happiness and fulfillment collide with reality and the romantic melancholy expresses his existential angst. The human interest rate margin. 4. Historicism and nationalism, the Romantics claimed the historic character of artistic works. A penchant for the past. 5. Escape from reality and irrationalism, the last especially in the Middle Ages served as the backdrop for the expression of ideals, rejected from the truth, as well as the exotic places and Eastern cultures. Avoidance is manifested through the fantasy: the choice of motifs horrific or fantastic, the night and a taste for the grim and macabre.
ROMANTIC PROSE 1.LA
1. Novela: distinguish the historical novel, located in the medieval era, recreating an idealized world and heroic - The Lord of Bembibre Gil y Carrasco, Enrique The youth of the Ailing, Larra or Sancho Saldaña-or Espronceda in modern times - The May 2 - Juan Ariza, and the social novel of Izco Ayguals, Mary the daughter of a laborer, a reflection of the conditions of the proletariat without delving into deep issues. 2 The manners: Kingdom of journalism, several texts were assuming the form of articles or pictures of manners, whose culture flourished from 1830. Are text descriptions of types, environments and scenes, which reflect different aspects of society at the time. Among the most outstanding authors are with scenes Matritense Mesonero Romans and Estébanez Calderón, with scenes of Andalusia, but especially stands out the figure of Mariano José de Larra. Is considered the creator of literary article in Spain. His articles were published under the title Collection of articles dramatic, literary, political sy customs. Articles of customs critically analyze reality, and proposes reforms for a free and educated society, the political articles reflect his liberal ideology and address the issue freedom of expression and censorship in articles of literary criticism becomes reflective author's plays, texts and performances, as well as educating the public. Signed with pseudonyms, Larra uses dialogue between characters, between the narrator and the reader, or even the exchange of letters. Worried about proofreading, used a simple and direct style without forgetting literary as exaggeration, irony, metaphors and comparisons and puns and idioms.
1.THE ROMANTIC DRAMA
In general, the works are divided into days, between one and seven-, mixed verse and prose, break the rule of the three units and blend the comic and tragic scenes on combining lyricism with slang and folkloric styles.After numerous supporting roles, which contribute to the setting, the romantic leading man is a victim of fate, and the lady, doomed to suffering, love passionately until slaughter. The staging has a detailed and descriptive dimensions with lighting effects, sound and spectacular scenery. The big issues are the fate of the drama, passionate love, revenge, and bloody external, power and authority, adultery and suicide, even apart from the rules, melodramatic and fantastic elements.
Highlights Macias, Larra, a conspiracy of Venice Martínez de la Rosa, Don Alvaro, or the force of fate, the Duke of Rivas, El Trovador by Antonio Garcia Gutierrez, Teruel lovers Hartzenbusch and Don Juan Tenorio by José Zorrilla.