I.Authors biographical Influences.
1.Ralph Waldo Emerson (Transcendentalist)
·On May 12, 1811, Emerson’s father died, leaving the son largely to the intellectual care of Mary Moody Emerson, his aunt, who took her duties seriously.
·In 1817 he entered Harvard College, where he began his journals.
·He graduated in 1821 and taught school while preparing for part-time Study in the Harvard Divinity School. Though Emerson was licensed to preach in The Unitarian community in 1826, illness slowed the progress of his Career, and he was not ordained to the Unitarian ministry at the Second Church, Boston, until 1829.
·In 1829 he also married Ellen Louisa Tucker. When she died of tuberculosis in 1831, his grief drove him to question his Beliefs and his profession. But in the previous few years Emerson had already Begun to question Christian doctrines.
·When Emerson left the church, he was in search of a more certain conviction of God than that granted by the historical Evidences of miracles. He wanted his own revelation—i.E., a direct and Immediate experience of God.
·The 1830s saw Emerson become an independent literary man.
·He had rallied together a group that came to be called the Transcendentalists, of which he was popularly acknowledged the spokesman. Emerson helped initiate Transcendentalism (q.V.) by Publishing anonymously in Boston in 1836 a little book of 95 pages entitled Nature.
·Emerson reclaimed an idealistic philosophy from this dead end of 18th-century rationalism by once again asserting the human ability to transcend the materialistic world of sense experience And facts and become conscious of the all-pervading spirit of the universe and The potentialities of human freedom.
·God could best be found by looking inward into one’s own self, one’s own Soul, and from such an enlightened self-awareness would in Turn come freedom of action and the ability to change one’s world according to The dictates of one’s ideals and conscience.