The school

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Post colonialism: Critical attitude rather than theory. Overlaps with post structural discourse. Main scholars: Edward Said, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Reaction to the cultural legacy of Western domination through colonialism and imperialism. Critique and destabilization of dominating Western discourse. Rejects realism and critics liberalism and neo liberalism as legitimizing western hegemonies Objectives of the post colonial critique To expose eurocentrique arbitrary representations of the world. Denounce European historical and cultural bias. Deconstruct  European and Western narratives. To draw attention to marginalized identities and cultures. To empower the heterogeneous indigenous societies. To empower the marginalized and excluded (‘subalterns’). To reclaim control over the power to produce  knowledge. To create a more inclusive and just international system. To create more inclusive and just human societies. To empower spaces of mixing Subalterns Identities outside hegemonic power structures. Denied access to means of producing knowledge. Not just the oppressed or discriminated-against. Not those wanting to gain legitimacy within the hegemonic discourse. Rather those who want to create spaces of resistance outside the hegemonic discourse Orientalism Orientalism as European arbitrary representation of heterogeneous spaces. Construction of the Orient as a mythical space. British-born notions of ‘Middle East’ and ‘Far East’. Intimate relationship between knowledge and power Theoretical hetrogenity Pluralist nature of post-colonialism. The biased labels of ‘Non Western’, ‘Third World’, ‘Developing World’, ‘South’ Language and power Foucault’s notion of 'epistemic violence’. Dominance of western ways of understanding and destruction of non-western ways of knowing. Use of Western languages and conventions also by post-colonial scholars. ‘Subalterns are caught in translation, never truly expressing themselves’ (Spivak) Modern human rights Modern human rights as a Western cultural construct? Modern human rights as naïve, a-historical, and imperialistic Incompatible with indigenous national practices. Denial of notions of ethical and societal responsibilities. Suppression of non-Western culture. The ‘Pornography’ of Empire conclusion Rejection of mainstream perspectives. Biased, abstract, reflective of vantage points .Not only realism and liberalism but also English School’s view of ‘International Society’

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