d) Lexical cohesion: a type of cohesion involving the repetition of a word or the use of a synonym (deep-profound); superordinates (Cadillac-car). Related words: lexically: school, school-master...Semantically: student, class. e) Conjunction: a type of cohesion in which expressions such as on the other hand mark relationships between parts of the text. Halliday and Hassan's classification, 1976: additive (and, also, in addition...), adversative (but, however, instead of, in contrast…), causal (therefore, as a result of…), temporal (first, finally, then...).
Coherence: a text that is meaningful and that makes sense. Cohesion: achieved in a text containing explicit markers indicating relationships between various parts of the text.
Word formation (WF) processes:
1) Derivation or affixation: a WF process which gives rise to derived words by means of prefixes or suffixes. They are made of one or more free morphemes and at least one bound morpheme.
2) Compounding: a WF process which gives rise to compounds, they are made of 2 or more free morphemes.
3) Borrowing: receive a word directly from another language.
4) Functional shift: change the part of speech of the word: google, bottle.
5) Root creation: invented words.
6) Clipping: words that have been shortened: phone from telephone.