Evolution - different kinds of living org developed from earlier forms during the his of earth. Artificial Selec. Modification of a species by humans benefits so are represented in successive generations. Darwin believes in evolution and natural selection while Lamarck believes in inheritance of acquired charac. Biotechnology - DNA Isolation DNA transformation DNA sequencing. Finding DNA - James watson & Francis Crick. 42 chromosones in humans 23 sex cells 2 types of cells somatic and germ cells Heterozygous - pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive Homozygous - Identical alleles (TT, tt) Recessive The second when both alleles are presented in the cell Dominant commanding or elevated position in allele Mutation - cause a change in a gene or a chromosome eg diseases, cancer, cysts. DNA function establish storage and transmission of genetic information. Differences to RNA - Transfers genetic code needed for the creation of proteins from the nucleus to the ribosome. Transverse wave - crest (top) wavelength (distancetop) amplitude (distance bottom) througg (middle) Longitudinal wave - compression (first part) rarefaction (bottom) Refraction thechange in speed that occurs when light passes from one medium to another, resposible for the bending of light. Reflection- objects can be seen by the light they emit, or, more often, by the light they reflect. Redcolour is the most refracted than Purple. Gamma, X rays, UV, infrared rays, radar, FM, TV shortwave, AM.