·Lexeme: is the abstract Vocabulary item that is listed in the lexicon with a common core of meaning.
·Word-forms: physical Realizations of the lexeme.
·Paradigm: the list of Word-forms that belong to a word.
·Morph: is the physical Realization of the morpheme. Morphs are made up of one or more morphemes.
·Syncretism: identical Word-forms that belongs to the same lexeme but are different grammatical words.
·Root: the basic form that Remains when you get rid of all the affixes.
·Stem: a term that we only use In inflectional morphology, it is the form to which you attach an inflectional affix (only suffixes in English).
·Base: is anything, any root and Any stem are bases but sometimes there are bases that aren’t roots and stems.
·Trisyllabic laxing rule: Whenever you have a word and you attach an affix and by attaching an affix you Build a word of three or more syllables, the tense vowel of the root will Become lax/short. Eg: atom Atomic
·Compound: a lexeme that Contains at least two bases which are both lexemes.
·Endocentric: when the head is Within the compound and the semantic and syntactic heads are inside.
·Exocentric: when the semantic Head is outside but the syntactic head is inside.
·Copulative: when the two heads Are equally important in terms of meaning.
·Conversion: is a word-formation process whereby you modify the word-class without modifying the input word/ Process Where the same word-form realizes two different lexemes.
·Clipping: word formation Process whereby you cut off a portion of the word. Backclipping or apocope: When you cut off the back part of the word. Foreclipping or procope: when you Cut off the fore part of the word.
·Acronym: when you take the Initial letter of the phrase and you read it as a word. Abbreviations cannot be Read as a word. Acronym and abbreviation differ in pronunciation.
·Blending: word formation Process whereby you take two words and blend them, as breakfast + lunch = Brunch. AB + CD = AD
·Productivity & Lexicalization
·Umlaut: is a type of internal Modification involving vowels. For instance, the relationship between foot and Feet is one of umlaut.
·Apophony: is a type of internal Modification of the phonological segments of a word.
·Ablaut: is a type of internal Modification involving vowels. The change in form between sing, sang and sung Is an instance of ablaut.
·Polysemy: homographs and Homophones whose meanings tend to be related.
·Homonymy: homographs and Homophones whose meanings are completely different.
·Loanword: you borrow the word And the meaning eg: paella, spaghetti...
·Loanshift: you borrow the Meaning but you translate into your language.