4. MANAGEMENT MODELS
Partial Models: Specific elements of the Management process brought to the foreground
-Management by Exception – Management only in exceptional situations.
-Management by Delegation – Management by transfer of tasks.
-Management by Decision Rules – Default decision rules are given.
-Management by Results - Management by control of results.
* Total Models: Inclusion of all elements of the Management process
-Management by Objectives – Management by agreed targets.
-St.Gallener Leadership Model - overall integrating model.
-Harzburger Leadership Model - Management with autonomous employees.
-7-S-Model - Mc.Kinsey Model - hard and soft factors.
* Management by objectives
o Management and employees agree jointly on targets.
o Employee has discretion - no specific order for the route to achieve his Targets.
o This shall motivate the employee and boost his creativity
o Leadership activity is mainly the agreement of targets and check of achievement
o Revolving operation: re-defining goals, when:
-After reaching the previous Target
-Problems to achieve the Objectives
·CSR = Corporate Social Responsibility
- Stakeholder approach: Implicitly included
- Shareholder approach: "License To Operate": The company must generate a social benefit in order to be Successful in the long term.
- Moral Approach: Company Has direct responsibility for the well-being of its employees (working Conditions, security).
-Indirect responsibility for Their families (income security)
-Indirect responsibility for Economically dependents (suppliers and their workers), ecological environment And dependent persons (health / nutrition) and political and other society (taxes, donations).
·Claims and justification
-Social requirements: pay suppliers on time, protect the Environment (noise, air and water pollution), company nursery and pay taxes.
- Companies are in the market competition: Must save costs, laws and contracts must be respected (institutions), environmental Protection causes costs and activity beyond legal requirements lowers Competitiveness (water temperature in small streams/CO2 emissions...) and environmental Protection or job security