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3. Security

3.1 .- Bad weather.

Wind and water:

Definition: Each crew on the basis of their experience, situation and boat must know what their limits of safety and therefore there can be no general definition of when we encounter bad weather.

Form of government: in bad weather should be governed so as to prevent balances, nod, wave encounters and compromise stability.

Balance: is the transverse motion of the boat leaning sideways. This movement can be very violent if you get the sea by means of, for what should be avoided this way.

HEAD: longitudinal movement in which falls the bow (or stern) of stroke, which can be very rough (slammings). This movement occurs whenever the sea is received by a different location throughout and will be greater when smaller the angle at which you receive the waves.

Boarding seas: as a result of wave or nod of the vessel can receive important boarding seas. In general the bow shock gets better and is less likely to ship large amounts of water in the tub.

Do not compromise stability: in general be avoided through the catch, especially since this situation jeopardizes the stability of the vessel, being more secure browser receives the sea by the bow or the fin.

Concept of stability: the transverse stability is the propensity of the ship righting itself. The longitudinal stability is the tendency of vessels to oppose a change of seat.

Way to break the synchronism: Performed by changing the speed and direction of the boat.

transversal transversal period if that is the time taken by the ship between the slope of the band and the other is equal to the wave can produce a dangerous increase in the amplitude of the oscillation. If there is need to change course.

Longitudinal: if the period equals the longitudinal wave synchronization can also occur. To avoid this we must change the speed of the boat.

Use deflectors to trim the boat: if the boat is traveling at high speed tends to sink the stern. trim, in this case it is horizontal to the vessel, ie to reduce the seat. This uses a plate located on the transom, that being driven by hydraulic mechanisms fix the seat to fall on the water moving.

3.2 .- Measures to be taken aboard in bad weather.

Review scuttles and hatches: in bad weather have to close all portholes and hatches for sea blows do not fill the interior.

Review of lights: when ventilation openings, the closure will depend on the degree of bad weather.

Coamings Review: must be targeted to leeward.

Review of other openings: any other openings that could flood the boat must be reviewed and possibly closed.

Stowage and lashing at sea are: stowage is orderly and proper placement of loads on the vessel. It must ensure the stability of the boat, dangerously altering its center of gravity. Lashings must properly to avoid falling or hitting. Avoid remaining "indigestion", ie they must be placed in reverse order of their use: first the least used, then the more. "A sea are" must be all the boat in anticipation of the storm.

Closing faucets background: background taps must be closed, except those to be left open for the proper functioning of the machines.

Loss to follow: the path must be done to get from one place to another. It is necessary to trace this defeat before leaving, taking into account: the risks, possible reserves and the effect of current and wind over it.

Weather the storm: the storm is to hold the bow or the bow until it subsides. Machine will be enough to govern. In sailboat candle will layer and has to seek a position that allows navigation forward without going ahead.

Running the storm: if the storm is so strong that you can not ride, you will fin aft or run into the sea and the storm. It must try to maneuver quickly to avoid getting crossed the shortest time. The sea along the fin may have a tendency to cross the boat.

Risks of a leeward coast: it is especially dangerous to have a lee shore in a storm, as this leads us to the coast. In case you can not avoid going into the coast we will do everything possible to lead us to a beach or in the lee of a rock. We must prepare, solicit help, try anchoring positions carry vests and take all security measures we can.

Anchor layer: open canvas cone trailing over the stern (sometimes by the bow) and serves to prevent us we cross the sea and the remaining time to the boat speed.

Maneuvers to a passing shower: the shower is an atmospheric phenomenon of short duration and abrupt and rapid changes of intensity. It may be water, snow, wind, hail, etc.. You must ensure the tightness of the vessel, it must provide a loss of visibility, we must prepare for a sudden increase in wind strength and we must prepare the crew vests, precise instructions, etc..

3.3 .- Protection of thunderstorms and influence in the needle.

The thunderstorms, although not dangerous, affecting the ship and electrical and electronic equipment aboard. It should turn off electrical and electronic equipment. He must have installed a lightning rod. after the storm should be reviewed if the water has been affected magnetic compass.

3.4 .- Low visibility.

Is any condition in which visibility is reduced by fog, mist, snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms, smoke or nightfall.

Precautions navigation fog slow, turn on the lights emit signals prescription; use radar Vigilance; draw certain defeat.

Radar reflector: it is an element that facilitates the visualization of the vessel on the radar of other vessels. It comprises eight sheet metal forming tetrahedra open. Should be located in a high place.

Avoid shipping: in low visibility navigation Avoid crowded areas, such as canals, crossing lines, busy roads, etc.. For these areas should be in high vigilance for all the horizons and fulfill the rules and regulations of maritime traffic.

Precautions for night navigation: vigilance around the horizon, use the safety harness on deck; avoid falling asleep, be clear about the maneuver, extreme precision navigation; use Channel 16 when you consider that we have not been seen in a danger of collision.

3.5 .- precautions in navigation in shallow waters.

We should avoid navigating in shallow waters. If we are in this circumstance we must: reduce speed, monitor the depth of the probe to identify hazards in the letter, and if possible establish a safety contour or delay, not to mention the effects of drift and drift; prepare maneuver anchoring; continued vigilance breaker or any sign of danger.

3.6 .- Safety equipment regulations for the navigation area "C" coinciding with the shipping areas 4, 5 and 6 of the new legislation.

[Click here to see the text preceding the change of law]

Text prior to the change in legislation

Description: The category "C" is navigation for vessels up to 12 meters and navigation up to 25 miles offshore. This category should have the following safety equipment on board:

1 steering compass with lighting.

1 binoculars.

1 ruler seamanship.

Letters, Portulano, Binder Lighthouses and Sailing Directions in the area.

1 Horn of fog, manual or pressure (bottle of respect).

1 Pavilion nationally.

1 Flashlight waterproof (bulb and respected set of batteries).

Signal 1 Mirror.

1 Reflector Radar nonmetallic hull vessels.

1 life jackets for each crew member (CE approval 89/686).

1 lifebuoy with light and lanyard of 27.5 meters (EC approval 89/686).

6 rockets with red parachute (IMO approval 689 (17)).

6 Hand flares (IMO approval 689 (17)).

1 bucket of bilge fire, with a minimum capacity 7 liters.

1 bilge pumps. manual at least 0.5 liters per stroke, electric 2 hours of continuous operation.

1 kit # 1.

1 Radio VHF transceiver.

Recommendations for use and stowage:

Hoops: should paint the name of the ship. Should be safe stowage in the ship's stern and unloading and easy to be launched. The lanyard should be 27.5 meters and floating. The light should be self-righting.

Jackets: There must be one for each crew member identified in the certificate of airworthiness. They must have a minimum buoyancy of 15 newtons and put her back in less than 5-10 seconds. You must have a whistle and reflective strips. Is adjusted by straps. They must be stowed in an accessible place.

Harnesses and Lifeline: an element is not mandatory but highly recommended. Its function is to prevent us from falling into the water and we are separated from the boat. It is composed of some straps that attached to a rope with a carabiner to be strong elements nabbed board. It is advisable to establish a line of life which they can devise the harness on each side of the boat. They must be stowed in an accessible place.

Pyrotechnics: there must be fired in haste. We see that we can see. The flares are about 60 seconds between 7 and 15 km and the rockets are about 30 km must be stowed in a dry place away from sources of heat. Must be handled with care and should be monitored that are not expired.

Mirror of signals can be seen 18 miles away. The sun must be found before the user of the mirror.

Radar reflector: it is an element that facilitates the visualization of the vessel on the radar of other vessels. It consists of metal plates that form eight open tetrahedra. Should be located in a high place.

Fog horn: in boats under 12 meters do not have to be fixed. The gas is pressurized liquid. Must be stowed in an easily accessible and not exposed to sunlight or other sources of heat continuously.

Flashlights: must be watertight and unsinkable. They can be used as a reflector to light up the maneuver. In sailing you can get visibility if light the candle with the torch.

Fire extinguishers:

Depending on the length
Enclosed cab and
length <10 meters
1 of type 21B
Between 10 and 15 meters 1 of type 21B
Between 15 and 20 meters 21B type 2
Between 20 and 24 meters 3 of type 21B

Depending on the power
(to be added to those required by the length if it exceeds 10 meters)
Power 1 engine 2 motors
Less than 150 Kw.
(<204 HP)
1 of type 21B 21B type 2
Between 150 and 300 Kw.
(<408 HP)
1 of type 34B 21B type 2
Between 300 and 450 Kw.
(<612 hp)
1 of type 55B 34B type 2
More and 450 Kw.
(<816 hp)
55B type 1 and the number required to cover the power above 450 kW. 55B type 2 and the number required to cover the power above 450 kW.

Types: 21B - 2Kg. dry powder or 3.5 CO 2; 34B - 3Kg. dry powder or 5 CO 2; 55B - 4kg. dry powder or Halon 6. (Note: Halon can not be installed since 2001 and must be replaced before 2004. There are similar alternative materials such as Inergen.)

In smaller boats with 20 hp outboard. extinguisher is not required. Vessels over 15 meters is necessary to have installed a fire water system.

Adapted to changing legislation

Review: This adaptation of the agenda is done in accordance with the Order FOM/1144/2003, 28 April 2003 which regulates the safety equipment, rescue, fire prevention navigation and Sewage discharges , to be carried on board pleasure craft. (BOE No 113/2003 of 12 May)

Description: Area navigation in coastal waters. It comprises the following areas of navigation:

Zone "4". Navigation in the area between the coast and the line parallel to the same line to 12 miles.

Zone "5". Sailing in the boat which does not vary more than 5 miles from a shelter or accessible beach.

Area "6". Sailing in the boat which does not vary more than 2 miles from a shelter or accessible beach.

Design Category: Design Category "C" for navigation of vessels in coastal waters. These boats are designed to travel in coastal waters, large bays and estuaries, lakes and rivers, where they can find wind force 6 and significant wave heights up to 2 meters. Applies to shipping areas 4, 5, 6 and 7.

Brief descriptions, suggested uses, stowage, and revisions:

Life jackets and life buoys: They must be stowed in an accessible place. The rings should be stowed in the stern of the boat and be easy to unloading and released. Inflatable life jackets will be reviewed annually at a service station is authorized.

Element Area 4-way navigation Area navigation 5, 6
Lifejackets 100% People
CE (150 N)
100% People
CE (100 N)
Lifebuoys 1 NO
(1) Vest CE; minimum buoyancy required according to UNE-EN 396:1995.
(2) Vest CE; minimum buoyancy required according to UNE-EN 395:1995.

Harnesses and Lifeline: an element is not mandatory but highly recommended. Its function is to prevent us from falling into the water and we are separated from the boat. It is composed of some straps that attached to a rope with a carabiner to be strong elements nabbed board. It is advisable to establish a line of life which they can devise the harness on each side of the boat. They must be stowed in an accessible place.

Pyrotechnics: there must be fired in haste. We see that we can see. The flares are about 60 seconds between 7 and 15 km and the rockets are about 30 km must be stowed in a dry place away from sources of heat. Must be handled with care and should be monitored that are not expired. All signs must be approved in accordance with the provisions of Royal Decree 809/1999 of 14 May.

Signal Class Area 4-way navigation Area navigation 5, 6
Rockets with red parachute 6 --
Hand flares 6 3
Buoyant smoke signals 1 --

Mooring lines: its length not less than five times the length of the boat. The chain length of the section shall be at least equal to the length of the craft, except vessels under 6 m in length can be formed entirely by deadline.

Anchor Weight
Chain Diameter
Diameter hawser
L = 3 3.5 6 10
L = 5 6 6 10
L = 7 10 6 10
L = 9 14 8 12
L = 12 20 8 12
L = 15 33 10 14
L = 18 46 10 14
L = 21 58 12 16
L = 24 75 12 16

For intermediate lengths to those indicated in the table are interpolated values of weight and diameter of anchor chain and hawser.

Equipment Rentals: Recreational boats must have the navigational equipment noted in the table below.

Material Area Navigation Requirements and Recommendations
4 5, 6
Compass 1 Craft operating in Zone 4 should carry a steering compass. In all cases, avoiding the disruptive actions on the meter, such as those derived from radio facilities or circuits.
Binoculars 1
Charts and nautical books 1 Take the letters to cover the seas by sailing under the respective categories and portulans ports they use.
Fog horn 1 1 Pressure can be manual or powered speaker replaceable gas pressure vessel. In this case, we have a membrane and a gas container as compliments.
Bell or similar 1 In length and vessels over 15 meters, the weight of the bell is 5 kilograms or more. At lengths below 15 meters, the bell is not mandatory but must have some means to produce sound effectively.
National flag 1 1
Code flags 1 1
Waterproof flashlight 1 It will have a bulb and a set of batteries respect.
Signal Mirror 1 1
Radar reflector 1 Be placed on non-metallic hull vessels.
Signal Code 1 1 If mounted radio equipment.

Material from diverse weapons: all pleasure craft must carry on board arms the following material:

An emergency tiller and sail boat in a single engine if the government is remote, unless the outboard engine or transmission is in z. At least two hawsers for mooring to the dock (where applicable) , adequate strength and length to the length of the boat. A gaff. A row of sufficient length and fashionable device, or a pair of paddles for boats with a length less than 6 meters (8 before the order FOM/1076/2006 ). In the semi-rigid inflatable boats, a pump and puncture repair kit. A first aid kit: The vessels authorized to navigation Zone 5, will need the kit type number 4. Vessels authorized to navigation Zone 4, will need the kit type life rafts.

Fire extinguishers: points shall be installed in easily accessible and far as possible from every possible source of fire. When wiring the boat carrying over 50 volts, one of the extinguishers should be suitable for fires of electrical origin. Extinguishers should be type approved and subject to revisions thereto. The extinguisher must contain not less than 2 kilograms of product extinguisher.

Depending on the length
Enclosed cab and
length <10 meters
1 of type 21B
Between 10 and 15 meters 1 of type 21B
Between 15 and 20 meters 21B type 2
Between 20 and 24 meters 3 of type 21B

Depending on the power
(to be added to those required by the length if it exceeds 10 meters)
Power 1 engine 2 motors
Less than 150 Kw.
(<204 HP)
1 of type 21B 21B type 2
Between 150 and 300 Kw.
(<408 HP)
1 of type 34B 21B type 2
Between 300 and 450 Kw.
(<612 hp)
1 of type 55B 34B type 2
More and 450 Kw.
(<816 hp)
55B type 1 and the number required to cover the power above 450 kW. 55B type 2 and the number required to cover the power above 450 kW.

Types: 21B - 2Kg. dry powder or 3.5 CO 2; 34B - 3Kg. dry powder or 5 CO 2; 55B - 4kg. dry powder.

In smaller boats with 20 hp outboard. extinguisher is not required.

Vessels equipped with a permanently installed fire suppression should have a portable fire extinguisher located near the engine compartment, enough to cover a quarter of the power without having to require more than a fire extinguisher.

Boats with gasoline engines is essential that they take extinction fixture in the engine compartment, to avoid opening the compartment in case of fire.

For the navigation area 4 requires 1 fire bucket with lanyard.

Media bilge: the craft shall at least be provided with the means to bilge below, according to the shipping areas:

In Zones 4, 5 and 6, a bucket and a pump. In sailing assigned to Zones 4, 5 and 6, at least one manual pump will be fixed and operable from the cockpit with all hatches and access within minutes.

Capacity: there should be less than (at a pressure of 10 kPa):

10 liters / min for L <= 6 m. 15 liters / min for L> 6 m. 30 liters / min for L> = 12 m.

For hand pumps, the capacity is achieved with 45 strokes per minute.

3.7 .- Emergency at sea.

3.7.1 .- Personal Accident.

General rules: the casualty away from the place of danger, look closely at the casualty; act promptly, but not rushed.

emergency treatment:

Injuries: disinfect with alcohol or iodine, to isolate them with dressings and supply of painkillers.

Contusions on the head monitor possible loss of consciousness and vomiting and chest freeze at the prospect of broken ribs in the abdomen is recommended eating only liquids contacting radio service provider.

Bleeding: arterial blood pumped very red, they must be reduced quickly by pressing over the wound with a tourniquet should not remain more than 3 hours and should be loosened every quarter hour, veined, dark blood flowing continuously, is removed with compressed bandage below the wound capillaries usually take no risk.

Burns: First-degree (solar radiation, etc..) Treated with alcohol, petroleum jelly, boric acid, liquid paraffins, bicarbonate, and so on. Second degree (blisters with clear fluid) does not break blisters, treated with ointment Halibut, fatty dressings and covered with sterile gauze. Third degree (produced by flames or incandescent solid, make crusts), do not remove the crust, Linitul treated with ointments, penicillin should be treated by a doctor.

Unconsciousness: You must lay the rough on the right side (recovery position).

Fractures and dislocations: immobilize and provide pain medication.

Medical radio messages:

Operational rules: you must call with VHF or mobile Radio Medical Center. This call has precedence to all messages except the relief.

Editors: always clear and concise manner all the information we give the patient, reason for visit, history and facts of the emergency, the ship data and situation.

[Click here to see the text preceding the change of law]

Kit for the navigation area "C" No. 1 kit containing:

Protective strips, 1 large box and 1 small box

1 tube of local antiseptic

1 tube of cream against sunburn

Bandage 5cm wide

Anti-inflammatory drops.

Kit for traffic zone 5: for the navigation area 5 requires a kit that contains Type 1:

Aspirin, tablets of 0.50 cases of 20 one. Mercurochrome, small jar, one. "Bandages 2.5 x 5 and 10 x 6, two of each. Tape 2.5 x 5, a roll. Antiseptic Venda (Salvelox) 1 m. by 6 cm., a box. Nolotil Blisters. Cotton wool 100 g, a package. sterile gauze 20 x 20, a boat.

Kit for traffic zone 4: for the navigation area 4 is required rescue Balsa kit type containing:

Action-Effect Active Ingredient Presentation Amount
Antianginal Nitroglycerin 20 tablets 1mg 1 box
Antihaemorrhagics Methylergometrine * 0.25 mg / ml drops 10ml 1 package
Gelatin hemostatic 1 sponge 200x70x0, 5mm 1 unit
Antiemetic Metoclopramide 30 Buy. 10mg 1 box
Antidiarrheal Loperamide 20 capsules 2mg 1 box
Analgesics, Antipyretics
and anti-inflammatory
Acetylsalicylic acid 20 call. 500mg 1 box
Dipyrone 5 ampoules 2gr 1 box
Anticinetósico Dimenhydrinate 12 Buy. 50mg 1 package
Antiseptics Povidone Dermal 10% solution 125ml 1 package
* Only required if they are women on board

Medical Supplies Amount
Cannula for mouth to mouth resuscitation. Guedel tube No. 3 or 4 1 unit
Elastic adhesive bandages 7.5cm wide 1 unit
Absorbent cotton 100gm 1 package
Sterile gas compresses 20x20cm. Box of 40 units 1 box
Hypoallergenic tape 5cmx10m 1 unit
Latex gloves N º 8-9 2 pairs
Compression dressings sterile box 3 units 1 box
Plastic adhesive bandages 6cm x 1m roll 1 box
6x100 package adhesive sutures 1 package
Gauze fat box with 20 envelopes 7x9cm 1 box
Blanket thermal insulation burned and surviving gold-silver 1 unit

3.7.2 .- Man overboard.

Prevention to avoid it: it is necessary to take precautions to prevent man-overboard situation. There must be on the cover slip, use good shoes, precautionary moves out of the bath, avoid going outside the vessel only.

Safety harness: it is advisable to install lifelines and harnesses should be used at night and in cool weather.

Lighting: must be appropriate for work, but that does not interfere with navigation lights.

Fighting the helix: in soon as the man overboard situation is to give all of the rudder for the band have fallen to avoid the propeller.

Signaling the castaway, individual marking and release of aid: after yelling "man overboard to port or starboard, you should throw the lifebuoy, write down quickly the position and time of occurrence and if you can not rescue the drowning man must perform an emergency call signal with PAN, PAN, PAN, indicating the emergence, location and time that has occurred.

Approach to the shipwrecked must be approached with very little start and getting the wind on the bow to windward of the wreck, so we protect the element with the ship.

Search maneuvers when he was not seen:

Ongoing investment method: backing off on the same course

Curve method of evolution: the helm to put everything a band, after 270 º will bow man.

Boutakow Method: put all the helm of a band to fall 70 degrees, then the other band with opposite direction.

Method of the minute: if out of sight, after making the curve of evolution, remains on track 1 ', then put all the rudder the opposite tack, at 1' will bow man.

GPS MOB: Man Over Board this function of the GPS is activated with a button that records the situation. MOB Clicking again will get the direction and distance to the location marked.

Collection: should be done with extreme care in situations of rough seas. You can launch the castaway moorings to hold on to them, the matrix of band or bathroom if another crew is unconscious should jump overboard to help.

Hypothermia below 35 degrees of body heat begins to cause fatigue, lack of coordination, confusion. Below 31 degrees is unconscious, the pulse becomes weak.

treatment and resuscitation of a shipwrecked there go slowly increasing the temperature warm, hot drinks too sugary manage, hot tubs, mobilize the affected part.

Rescue breathing: it puts the casualty on his back and head back. It breathes air into the mouth at the time you close your nose with your fingers and is seen as the chest expands. This operation should be performed 13 to 16 times per minute.

Cardiac massage: with two hands, one above the other, pressed the tip of the sternum 2 to 4 cm. five times, one per second, two seconds are expected. Alternating with mouth to mouth.

3.7.3 .- faults.

Failure of government: if the government loses rudder failure because the transmission mechanism should be replaced by a cane or emergency conference on the rudder. If the rupture is of the rudder blade we make a fortune.

Timon of fortune: You can use a paddle or any other plane. You can use two ropes with buckets, one on each side, chasing each will get some maneuverability.

Staying adrift: keep drifting out of control. We must give notice requesting trailer

3.7.4 .- trailer.

Approach maneuver: you must always do as little torn, trying to launch the ship mooring lines remain upwind of who receives them. In the event that the towing vessel is much greater than the tow, you can use the pretext of this to facilitate the maneuver. If it is not possible to approach a buoy can be used to bring the ropes of the trailer.

Give and take the trailer: the cables must be resilient and able to absorb the pulling. The length of rope will be greater as the sea is worse. The lines should be strapped to a very strong and secure points on board.

Way of navigating the tug and tow: course changes should be smooth (10th). The tow is to govern water trying to follow the tug, and may give to the opposite rudder of the tug to describe a circle on the move and keep the ropes taut. The speed changes should be very soft, especially with the cables without stress, and should not exceed 10 knots. It should monitor their moorings and berths.

3.7.5 .- Approach.

Support and recognition of disturbances: the craft must be stopped. There shall be separate two boats without recognizing the damage as they can be plugged a major leak. It should assist the other boat. You should verify if damaged crew members. It will take all the data, noting in the log what happened and make the relevant party or "sea protest" to the authority, in addition to reporting the fact to the insurer.

3.7.6 .- Varada involuntary.

Measures to be taken out of the stranded:

Damage Assessment: You must check for damage suffered by the ship before any action.

Put it back the ship afloat: they should consider whether you can change weight distribution, lower weights, give back or ahead as the background, waiting for high tide, using a trailer, etc..

Resistance of the hull if it is beached at high tide to go down the tide can cause structural damage.

Stability: if stability has been impaired may reach a critical state with the effect of ebb tide may reach the turning or heeled dangerously for the next high tide.

3.7.7 .- Waterways and flood.

Points of greatest risk: The leaks may occur from different causes: collision, grounding, wear the rivets or the hull, floats on the presses of the stern propeller or rudder Limera, disconnection from the taps background, breakdown in pipes and water hoses, holes or gaps in the exhaust pipe clamps, etc.. As water is detected on board have to locate the leak and bail.

Bilge pumps and electrical manual: the manual can be fixed or portable and capacity shall be at least 0.5 liters per stroke. The power will have a capacity of at least 1,800 liters per hour and operate continuously for 2 hours in length.

Coolant pump motor if the pump breaks down the engine cooling circuit or stop the engine must be warmed up and it can produce significant damage.

Fortunately measures for their control and tamponade:

Espiches: are tapered wedges that can be used to plug small waterways.

Mats: in case of need mats or sticks bent and hooks can be used to plug a leak.

Pallets for crash is a reinforced canvas strips used to patch placing them on the outside of the hull.

Other information can be used clamps, cloth, canvas, patches, silicone seals, which are turafallas cloth or rubber with a threaded shaft that can be adjusted on both sides of the case.

3.7.8 .- Prevention of fires and explosions.

Places of risk:

Kitchens: you must remember to turn off the spigot of the gas cylinder to empty the ducts. It is advisable to have a thermal blanket to smother small fires in pans or other utensils.

Cameras engine: it should be monitored for leaks in the fuel pipe is well ventilated and that there is a risk of explosion if the gases accumulate in the bilge.

Tomas fuel: they must avoid spillage and sealed when not in use.

Batteries: liquids are corrosive and produce explosives and poisonous gases. They must be ventilated to prevent leaks.

Electrical: cables and splices well protected, chipas avoid, for example when you plug the switch "on".

Locker or locker with pictures: well ventilated and away from heat sources.

Factors that have to compete to produce fire:

It is called the ring of fire and must attend to produce the fire. Extinction occurs because eliminating some or all factors.

Oxygen: Fire consumes oxygen.

Engine: is any factor which may burn: gases (butane), liquid (petrol) or solid (paper, wood).

Temperature: in addition to heat produced during combustion, its presence can ignite some materials.

Chain Reaction: are internal processes in the combustion process can be eliminated by means of certain products.

How to proceed to a fire:

Location: we know where the fire, what it is producing, what materials are nearby, what elements can help its spread.

Confinement: we isolate in fire and prevent its spread, closing gates, fans, etc.. We must bear in mind that heat is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection.

Extinction should delete certain items from the ring of fire to extinguish. Suppressed by the removal of oxygen, reducing the temperature cooling, eliminating the fuel or cutting the chain reaction.

Extinguishing Procedures:

Types of fires and extinguishing procedure
Kind Source Measures Extinction
A Solid Avoid spreading.
Disconnect electrical equipment nearby.
Water cooling. Also suppress dust with foam or ABC.
B Liquids Cut product spills.
Absorb with sand.
Cool containers exposed to fire.
Choking with foam, ABC powder or C0 2. It also can be cooled with water spray.
C Gases Cut gas flow.
Disperse gas clouds or fog of water vapor pressure.
ABC powder suffocation. You can also use water spray or C0 2.
D Metals Special Powder (D).
Prohibited use water, foam, C0 2 or ABC powder.
E In the presence of live electrical equipment Disconnect or cut electrical equipment by the board. Smothering with ABC powder or C0 2.
Prohibited use water or foam.

General measures: they should avoid suddenly opened the compartments do not enter into closed compartments without masks properly, otherwise there can suffocate or explosion hazard must leave the ship, it must prevent the spread to locations with fuel ; you should avoid the spread of fire gases.

Socaire fire, due to the apparent wind is zero: the source of fire should be downwind, to prevent spreading. If possible the same course and sail to the wind speed to produce a zero apparent wind and facilitate control over it.

Sinking the boat: if the fire was impossible to suppress and we had the chance to sink the boat, opening the taps in the background, in a shallow aplacerado to be able to refloat.

3.7.9 .- Measures to be taken before leaving the boat.

Risk of abandonment precipitate: Before leaving a boat must be completely sure that this is less certain that the environment around us. In general you should avoid hasty abandonment of the vessel.

Clothing, personal equipment, material and measures must be taken before leaving the boat: we should go fully clothed with a garment for the head, but wearing socks without shoes, put on our lifejackets, hydrostatic everything afloat supplying water and food, we must be guided, abandoned by band windward us away from the boat to avoid the suction of the sinking.

Message to deliver: on VHF Channel 16 "MAY DAY (three times), HERE (or DELTA ECHO) and the vessel's identification, location and circumstances." For the same phone calling 900 202 202.

How to use pyrotechnics: only be used if the cerceza of us can see, should be released to leeward, it should read the instructions, are flammable, its use can be dangerous innadecuado.

3.7.10 .- state of marine salvage company.

Agency created in 1992 by the Law of the State Ports and Merchant Marine, you are search services, search and rescue, and helps control traffic, prevent and combat pollution, towing and other complementary the above.

Local, regional and zonal centers:

Location and coverage:

NACC: National Rescue Coordination, which coordinates all the peripheral and provides liaison and coordination with the Centers equivalents worldwide. The CNCS has coverage of communications in the area A3 (between parallels 70 'N and 70' S).

CZCS: Zonal Coordinating Center Rescue, which covers radiogoniometric to radar and separation of traffic and communications coverage in the A2 area (minimum 100 miles).

CRCS: Regional Coordination Center Rescue, which covers areas radiogoniometric radar and approach to different ports and coastal areas, and communications in the area A2 (minimum 100 miles).

CLCS: Center Local Rescue Coordination that covers radar, finders and VHF communications maneuvering approach and entry / exit to / from ports special risk. The CLCS have communications coverage in the area (20-30 miles).

Way of connecting with them via VHF channel 16 and on telephone 900 202 202. You can also call each of the centers:

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4. Navigation

4.1 .- Theoretical Knowledge:

4.1.1 .- Axis, poles, Ecuador, meridians and parallels:

H: is the diameter around which the earth.

Poles are the endpoints of the axis of the Earth: North and South.

Ecuador: the maximum circumference is perpendicular to the axis of the earth and divides it into two hemispheres: North and South.

Meridians: they are great circles passing through the poles, perpendicular to Ecuador.

Parallel: children are circles parallel to Ecuador. Special attention deserve the Tropic of Cancer to the north, the Tropic of Capricorn to the south, the Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle.

Meridiano zero in order to take a starting point or origin of the measurement of the meridian was adopted universally passing through the Greenwich Observatory (Prime Meridian, Greenwich Meridian or Prime Meridian).

Meridian of the place: it is the meridian that passes through the point where we are. The two semicircles of longitude divided by the poles are called upper meridian (which we are) and less than or antimeridiano meridian.

Latitude: is the arc of meridian of the place counted from Ecuador to the parallel of the place. Its symbol is "l" lowercase. It is measured from Ecuador and may be North (N) or south (S), and never have a value greater than 90 degrees.

Length: is the arc of Ecuador told from the Greenwich meridian to the meridian of the place. Its symbol is "L" capitalized. Their values range from 0 ° to 180 ° east (E) or West (W) of the prime meridian.

4.1.2 .- navigation charts

General: the charts are flat or maps used for navigation.

Types of cards:

Letters according to their scale
Point Charter Scale Use
Minor General 1/30.000.000 to 1/3.000.000 Ocean navigation
Disposing 1/3.000.000 to 1/200.000 Direct course
Major Coastal Navigation 1/50.000 to 1/200.000 Navigation with the coast in sight
Aproches or homing 1/25.000 Approach to ports and other points along the coast
Portolan <1/25.000 Ports, harbors or other details of the coast

Cartridges: some cards are inserted in a given area on a larger scale, this attachment is called a cartridge.

Information provided by the letters: the letters included information on accidents of the coast (capes, bays, creeks), terrain features (mountains, rivers), landmarks (churches, towers, antennas), lights (headlights), probes, nature of the fund, marks, buoys, hazards, prohibited areas, surface hazards such as rocks, reefs and wrecks, magnetic declination and annual change, and so on.

Important signs and abbreviations used in nautical charts:

Lighthouses: tear is represented as a dark red. Shows the characteristics of light (eg Gp D (4) 20s 30M)

Lanterns of port: is represented as a dark red tear smaller. Shows the characteristics of light (eg Gp D (2) R 6s 13M)

Probes: These are the numbers that appear in the letter on the merits.

Nature of fund: may be A-sand-mud F, P-stone Alg-algae; Co-gravel; Go-pebble, R-rock Cl-coral.

Ridges: depth contours are lines that have equal depth.

Magnetic declination: it is a compass rose drawn on the letter that includes within it the value and date that marks the decline and annual variation (eg 4 º 25'W 1994 (8'E)).

4.1.3 .- Nautical publications of interest:

Paths: they describe the costs for port calls with useful information and approaches to ports.

Navigational guides for boating: These are documents that describe the aids to the navigator, such as first aid manual, the regulation of communications and international code of signals.

Lists of lights: they contain information useful for recognition of lighthouses, buoys and other light brands.

Tide tables: collect the information necessary for the calculation of tides in different days and places.

All these documents are published by the Hydrographic Institute of the Navy for the Spanish coast.

4.1.4 .- coastal navigation charts:

Meridians: in the letter are the vertical lines.

Parallel: in the letter are the horizontal lines.

Scales latitudes are located to the left and right margins of the letter. In the northern hemisphere increases upwards and south downwards.

Length scales: they are situated at the top and bottom of the letter. East of longitude 0 ° increases from left to right, west from right to left.

Dec: is a compass rose drawn on the letter that includes within it the value and date that marks the decline and annual variation.

4.1.5 .- Measures

Nautical Mile: equals the length of one minute of arc of meridian (1,852 meters).

1 mile = 10 cables = ± 1,000 fathoms = ± 2,000 yards = 1,852 feet.

1 cable = 100 fathoms = 185.2 meters.

1 fathom = 2 yards = 6 feet = 1.83 meters.

1 yard = 3 feet = ½ fathom. = 91.44 inches.

1 foot = 12 inches = 30.48 centimeters.

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters.

Knot: A unit of speed equivalent to one mile per hour.

Way to measure the distance on the chart:

1) With the dividers the distance noted in the letter.

2) We the opening of the compass on the scale of latitudes (right or left of the letter).

3) Every minute of the scale of latitude equals one mile.

4.1.6 .- Directions

Direction: the angle formed by the fore-aft line with the meridian of the place or to the north. According to the North that we refer to the course will be true (geographic), magnetic or needle.

Circular is measured from 000 º to 360 º in the sense of clockwise.

Quadrantal are measured from 00 ° to 90 ° and is counted from the N or S to the E and W. They are expressed by saying N or S the number of degrees from this direction towards the E or W, for example, S80W.


From quadrantal to move:

First quadrant: N 45 E = 045 º.

Second quadrant: S 45 E = 180 º - 45 º = 135 º.

Third quadrant: S 45 W = 180 º + 45 º = 225 º.

Fourth quadrant: N 45 W = 360 º - 45 º = 315 º.

I travel to quadrantal:

First quadrant: 45 º = N 45 E.

Second quadrant: 135 º = 180 º - 135 º = S 45 E.

Third quadrant: 225 º = 225 º - 180 º = S 45 W.

Fourth quadrant: 323 º = 360 º - 323 º = N 45 W.

Compass rose: or compass divides the horizon into 32 equal parts.

The first division are the cardinal points:

N-0 º E-90 º S-180 º W-270 º

Divided in half quadrantal Bearings are obtained:

NE-045 SE-135 º º 225 º SW-NW-315 º

These are subdivided for Octantales Bearings:

NNE-22 º 30 'JAN-67 º 30' ESE-112 º 30 'SSE-157 º 30' SSW-202 º 30 'WSW-247 º 30' NW-292 º 30 'NNW-337 º 30'

Finally, divide again to finally obtain the Fourth with a value of 11 º 15 '.

4.1.7 .- rudiments of terrestrial magnetism.

Magnetism is the property that has a magnet to attract or repel certain metals. The Earth behaves as a large spherical permanent magnet, so that a freely rotating magnet is directed towards the respective magnetic poles of the Earth, which do not exactly match the geographies.

4.1.8 .- Magnetic declination

Magnetic declination: the geographic poles do not coincide with the magnetic poles, there is a difference between the geographical meridian and magnetic meridian, the angle between the two is called magnetic declination (dm). The dm can be to the NE (+) or towards the NW (-).

Local variation: the value of dm is different for every point on Earth and is changing over time. The dm for a given place on earth is called local variation.

How to update: To get the dm of a particular place for a specific date just check the letter and get the data for the decline included therein. To correct it using the following formula:

dm = VariaciónInicial + (± VariciónAnual * NúmeroAños)

If the letter indicates 4 º 25 W 1994 (8 'E), for the year 2003 will: dm = -4 ° 25' + (+8' * 9) = -4 ° 25 '+ (+1 ° 12') = -3 º 13 '= -3, 2nd (as expressed as degrees and tenths of a degree)

4.1.9 .- Nautical Needle

Description: This is a magnetized needle that tends to draw the same magnetic direction. Consists primarily of a series of magnets.

Rosa: disco light where the magnets are situated and has recorded the horizon 360 degrees.

Capital and Style in the center of the rose is a slit (spire or steeple) which rests on the tip of the style that allows the pan.

Biker: a metal box with glass cover, which contains the entire set, which rests on a suspension system called Cardan and usually is full of distilled water and alcohol.

Faith Line: A mark indicating the fore-aft line (cracked).

Blog: support on which you placed the rider.

Installation: should install it on the centreline, so the line of faith indicates the fore-aft direction correctly. It must be visible at all times to the helmsman.

Interference: the needle is subject to perturbations due to fields different from the terrestrial magnetic field such as metal objects, electrical and thunderstorms.

Diversion .- 4.1.10

Diversion of the needle: the magnetic disturbances occur on the needle does not match the magnetic meridian of the place and direction of the needle, the angle between the two is called the deviation (?). It can be positive (NE) or negative (NW).

Tablet diversion: is the relationship, conducted by a professional, like deviations in each direction 15 degrees.

4.1.11 .- total correction

Calculating from the decline and diversion: is the sum (each with its sign) of magnetic declination and diversion.

Ct = (± dm) + (± ?)

If dm = NW 7th and ? = NE 3rd Ct + +3 = -7 º º º = -4


True North: is the geographic north.

Magnetic North: it is marked by the magnetic pole has a declination of true north.

North needlework: it is that makes the needle board and has a detour on the magnetic north.

4.1.12 .- Types of course

Heading True (Rv) is the angle between the direction of the nose with the true meridian of the place. It's we get in the chart.

Magnetic heading (Rm) is the angle between the direction of the nose with the magnetic meridian of the place.

Needle direction (Ra) is the angle between the direction of the nose with the NS line of the needle. It's that we get from the observation of magnetic pink board.

Relationship between them: To manage the relationships between different types of bearings will be used the following generic formula:

Rv = Ra + (± dm) + (± ?)

This formula can be deployed with the following combinations:

We know
Rv Ra Rm
We obtain Rv = Rv = Ra + (± Ct) Rv = M + (± dm)
Ra Ra = Rv - (± Ct) = Ra = M - (± ?)
Rm Rm = Rv - (± dm) Rm = Ra + (± ?) =

4.1.13 .- Coefficient of sliding.

Slide: is the instrument used to measure the distance traveled and speed of the boat.

Sliding coefficient: Ratio between the true velocity and the speed set by the slide.

K = velocity (or distance) true / speed (or distance) from sliding

Multiplying that makes the slide by the coefficient K will give us the speed or the actual distance traveled.

Fourth .- 4.1.14. Wind, depression, surface course. Currents and their influence.

Fourth, each of the 32 parts or directions in which the compass is divided, equal to 11 º 15 '. It uses related to the direction from which wind, so for example, navigate to 8 quarters is navigate through or catch the wind at 90 degrees.

Wind is moving air. Remember that always indicates the direction where the wind comes.

Surface Course: This is the real defeat or effectively navigated the displacement caused by the wind exerted on the boat.

Abatement: is the angle between the true course (direction of the bow) and direction of surface (Ab = Rs - Rv). When winds abate the ship to starboard depression is considered a positive (+) port and negative (-).

Rs = Rv + (± Ab)

Countering the gloom: To correct the drift and finally make a desired surface course simply change the true course in the opposite direction to abate.

Rv = Rs - (± Ab)

Currents: are the movements of water in a certain direction. It indicates the direction towards which conducts current and expresses its speed (intensity of the current time, IHC) in knots, ie miles traveled in an hour.

Influence of the current in the course: the current produces a variation on the boat on course and speed to move the medium on which it travels.

Drifting: is the angle between the true course (direction of the bow) and the actual direction (on the bottom) made by the ship. The actual speed is what really will ship the effect of current. To know the actual course and speed using a graphical method by means of vectors.

Counteract the drift: you must follow a true course toward the opposite direction of current. To calculate your course and direction to use a graphical method by means of vectors.

4.1.15 .- Lines of position

Leading line: the line connecting two or visual objects or marks. This Leading line on the chart corresponds to the line that passes through two brands represented in it.

Delay: is the angle between the North line of sight directed to a point. Obtaining this angle is made with the compass needle alidade the Delay (Da), this bar is influenced by the magnetic declination and detours, so to draw on the letter the True bearing (dv) we must apply the fix overall.

Oppositions: Leading line is when the two elements are on either side of the observer 180 º.

Distances: we use the log and depth sounder.

Ridges: in the charts is the line connecting points of equal depth (also called contour). It can serve to move to the letter and to follow a safe course.

Obtaining lines with the needle position and transform them into true to its path in the letter: It should be applied to move from total correction gives Dv. When plotted on the chart are plotted the opposite Dv, ie we must add 180 degrees.

Dv = Da + (± Ct)

Use of headed down, delay and position sensors as security lines:

They turned: it is the safest position lines, as the Leading line is not affected by visual errors. There's only more to draw the line in the letter that passes through the colon.

Delays: are subject to errors of assessment and must be taken into consideration at least two or three.

Probes: may be affected by movements in the background or lack of precision in the cards. Follow a contour as safety course a fairly common practice in low visibility.

4.1.16 .- Speed

Speed: is the angle between the fore-aft line with the visual reference point. Are counted from 0 º to each band up to 180 degrees (Starboard +, Babor -). Also you can count from 0 º to 360 º from the bow.

Relationship between direction, delay and Dial directions and delays have to reciprocate, ie that if we work with the true course will obtain the true bearing.

Cv = Rv + (± M)

4.1.17 .- Navigation aids

Trademarks: These are points on the ground that serve as reference for navigators.

Lights and signals at sea:

Lighthouses: Towers still on the coast, low and islands. By day they differ from each other by physical appearance (eye-catching paintings, stripes, type of building, etc..) Night appearances are identified by their light. They usually emit radio signals.

Lanterns: smaller headlights light output, fixed on the ends of the breakwaters of the docks, seawalls, etc.. Serve to indicate the mouth of the port, the head of the docks, the reefs close to shore, and so on.

Buoys and beacons: the fixed bollards (posts or pillars in shallow water) or signaled channel indicate underworld. Buoys are floating beacons that light can have a short range.

4.2 .- Exercises on the chart:

4.2.1 .- Given a point on the chart, knowing its coordinates. Given the coordinates of a point, placing it in the letter.

4.2.2 .- Measurement of distances. Method of drawing and measuring directions.

4.2.3 .- Concept elementary graphic reckoning in the letter.

4.2.4 .- Heading to go to a specific distance from the coast or danger. Correct the course when you have depression. Correct the course when any draft.

4.2.5 .- layout and extent of delays and headed to the conveyor.

4.2.6 .- The Leading line delays and opposition as true. Calculation of the total correction from a Leading line of tablet and detours.

4.2.7 .- Obtain the situation for a delay, a Leading line or an opposition, and simultaneous contour line.

4.2.8 .- Position by simultaneous bearings, knowing the course.

4.2.9 .- Obtain the situation from two concurrent delay, delay and distance. Delay and Simultaneous Leading line or two we headed. Conditions to be met for the position lines are reliable.

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