1. Naval Technology
1.1 .- Dimensions.
Maximum length: length of the boat. It is the distance measured parallel to the design water line between two planes perpendicular to the centreline, one forward and one aft, excluding non-structural elements of the hull.
Beam: width of the boat. Is the maximum width of the hull with fixed structures.
Depth: has three possible meanings.
· Maximum vertical dimension measured from the top of the keel to main deck.
· Each of the pillars supporting the roofs.
· Palo to handle loads.
Freeboard: vertical distance from the waterline at maximum load and watertight deck above.
Draft: Depth of the boat. Is the maximum dimension measured vertically submerged hull, excluding rudder, the keel, tails and other appendages similar engines.
Draft aft: the distance between the bottom of the keel and the waterline at the stern of the boat.
Draft forward: distance between the bottom of the keel and the waterline in the bow of the boat.
Depth in the middle: the distance between the bottom of the keel and the waterline in the middle of the length of the boat.
Draft medium: half-adders of the drafts at bow and stern.
Sheer: when the mean draft is less than the draft in the middle, ie a U-shaped hull
Broken: when the mean draft is greater than the draft in the middle, ie a U-shaped hull inverted.
Seat: The difference between the drafts fore and aft.
Seat positive forward the draft is less than the stern.
Seat negative: the draft forward is greater than the stern.
Seat neutral: the drafts fore and aft are the same.
Weight: weight of the boat, measured in metric tons.
Maximum displacement: maximum weight of the boat in safety.
Tonnage: it expresses the interior volume of the vessel. Measured in tonnes Moorson (1 mo = 2.83 m 3 = 100 ft 3) (synonym: GRT or GT).
Net tonnage: is the volume of commercial spaces of the ship.
1.2 .- Names of the hull.
Bow: the front of the boat makes its way into the water.
Stern: the back of the boat.
Port: the left side of the boat from stem to stern looking.
Starboard: the right side of the boat from stem to stern looking.
Sides: each of the sides and outer hull. It is often confused with the Bands.
Bands: each of the halves divides the fore-aft line (cracked).
Amur: fronts of the sides, converging from across the bow.
Fins: backs of the sides, converging from across the stern.
Centreline: longitudinal axis (fore-aft) of the boat.
Waterline: the intersection between the submerged and the water emerges from the boat.
Underwater hull is the part of the hull below the waterline (synonym: hull).
Draft is the part of the hull above the waterline.
Cover: Each of the floors of the boat.
Plan: is the lowest floor of the boat.
Bilge: are the lower parts are deposited low where the filtered water. Their purpose is to store that water to then be made smaller bomb.
1.3 .- Structure.
Hull: the body is a vessel, without moving parts such as masts, superstructure, machinery, tackle, etc.
Keel: is the backbone of a boat. It's a sturdy piece located at the bottom center of the boat from stem to stern that underlies the frame.
Roda: then very robust, the keel by bow (synonym: Breakwater).
Sternpost: continuation of the keel at the stern.
Notebook: Hull ribs starting from the keel define the shape of the sides.
Baths: pieces that cross the vessel from port to starboard holding the covers.
Borda: part of the coast from the deck and bulwark.
Offer: upper side.
Bulkheads: are the partitions or walls of a vessel.
1.4 .- Concept of leakage.
Sealing: is the quality that ensures that water does not enter inside the vessel and ensures buoyancy. Should be avoided by all means let water inside the boat and could flood.
Bath: open chamber aft of pleasure boats, where generally is fitted cane or wheel.
Scuppers: holes to let out water from the deck or cockpit.
Drains: are conduits out of the water with the same purpose as the scuppers.
Holes and taps run: valves are placed below the waterline in order to control the passage of water used for cooling, toilets, kitchen and other services.
Engine exhaust: tube leading outside the burned gases through the engine.
Speaker: coating that is packed inside a hole, for example the horn of the propeller shaft.
Limera rudder: it is the hole where the center crosses the top of the rotation axis of the rudder blade.
Portillos breaks, usually circular, that are practiced in the sides of the boat or on bulkheads in the superstructure for light and ventilation.
Hatches breaks, usually rectangular in decks to communicate between the various departments of the boat.
Locker: closure to protect the downstream opening into the boat.
Lumbreras: lockers covered with glass for light and ventilation to the inner chambers.
Coamings ventilation: steel pipes or glass fiber placed vertically on the deck, and crowned with a hemispherical cap or oval serving for ventilation.>
Bilge pumps: These are machines designed to raise liquids, usually in order to extract the internal compartments of the vessel.
1.5 .- Accessories
Handrails: pieces that serve as a handle to move the boat.
Candlesticks: vertical pieces that are placed on the railings on the sides of the boat.
Cleats: solid piece of T-shaped asserted any part of the boat used for mooring ropes. They are placed vertically or horizontally.
Bitas: each of the wooden poles or iron, strongly secured to the deck near the bow, used to turn the anchor cables when anchoring the ship. Always placed horizontally.
Anchor: strong, heavy instrument, or spear-shaped double hook that attached to the end of a rope, chain or strong cord to the boat and thrown into the water, holding the boat in the background.
Windlass: horizontal axis machine used to weigh chains (synonym: winch)
Blurted drum grooves or molds where paddock mated or coupled links of the chain.
Clutch: mechanism to couple and uncouple the barbotan.
Brake: barbotan mechanism to block.
Stoppers: mechanism will bite and arresting the chain.
Cabirol: smooth drum of a windlass to collect lines (synonym: CABIRON).
Winch: vertical axis machine used to weigh chains.
Escobar hole where the anchor chain out (synonym: cat flap).
Chain locker: compartment that holds the anchor chain.
Timon: Iron or shovel attached to the stern of the boat used to their government (synonyms: tiller, wheel).
Rudder: when the blade is on both sides of the shaft.
Timon ordinary: that the whole part of the blade is forward of the axis of rotation.
Blade: hand pressing on the water to produce the turn of the boat.
Mecha: rudder shaft.
Cane or wheel: mechanisms to indicate the shift to the rudder blade.
Propellers: is the driving factor of a boat equipped with engine.
Step: it is what theoretically a propeller would advance in a solid medium to give a full circle.
Reverse: as the propeller moves in fluid, the loss on the theoretical advance in a solid medium is called back.
Diameter: distance between the tips of the blades opposite.
Righthanded: running ahead at the effect turns clockwise (right).
Lefthanded: runs ahead rotates counter-clock water (left).
Cavitation: vibration produced by the turn of the screw in her empty place.
Cabos: are the strings used on board.
Twine structure >Several fibers are twisted the Filasteen, several Filasteen up the umbilical cords and several Cape.
Sarah: end of a wire rope.
Breast arc or curvature that forms between the extremes Cape attaching it.
Firm: longer or main part of the cape.
Gaza or oval ring is done in the working end of a rope and used to attaching the hook out or something on it. It can be fixed whip plaiting the strands of the firm or tentative and through a knot like the bowline.
Boza: is a piece of rope that can hold a rope, chain or cable is under tension to manipulate.
Noray: parts, usually iron, affirmed in the spring to hold the ropes.
Killed: heavy solid pieces resting on the bottom and that attach the buoys or beacons.
Buoys: floating elements tied to the dead used to mooring of vessels or signaling.
Defenders: accessory to protect the boats dock from rubbing or hitting other boats or the dock.
Boathook: stick a hook over which helps in the docking or undocking of recreational craft.
Artificial fiber rope:
Polyester (tergal, Dacron): high strength, flexibility, not float, are unaffected by environmental action. Use: running rigging.
Nylon: very strong and elastic. Use: anchors, moorings and trailers.
Propylene: highly resistant to abrasion, harsh touch, they float and are cheap. Use: lanyard the lifebuoy.
Kevlar: withstand a near zero elasticity (five times stronger than steel cable), very expensive. Use: halyards and sheets of racing sailboats.
1.7 .- Terminology
Heeling: is the action to knock down or tilt the boat.
Righting: the action of making a boat upright.
Balance: transverse motion (starboard-port) of the boat.
Nodding: Longitudinal movement (fore-aft) of the boat.
Slammings: violent overthrow of the water as a result of pitching.
Windward: The part where the wind comes.
Leeward: part to where the wind goes.
Charge: pick up a pulling it out (synonym: pull).
Templar: to strain a rope, cable or chain (synonym: TENS).
Lascar: loosening or lowering a rope that is working (Synonym: filar).
Arria: loosen a rope.
Long: release and totally free to leave out, disconnecting it.
2.1 .- Lashes.
Lashes: ropes or cables are used to secure (tie) the boat to a dock.
Length: painter that draws so skewed toward keel, the bow or the fin toward the dock. There are long fore and aft along.
Through: ties that calls at the line, perpendicular to the fore-aft. There are at bow, stern and sometimes center.
Sprinting: Pull that, starting from the bow or stern call to bow or aft respectively, in a biased manner. There are bow (bow is tied to aft) and aft (aft is tied to the bow).>
Coder: Pull down the side opposite the wharf where we are normally berthed or a dead pile.
Long bow berthed bow and moving ahead " aft aft berths and backward movement Through bow the docks through " aft the docks through Sprint bow berthed bow and backward movement " aft aft berths and moving ahead
Use as wind and current:
Cast off the bow Cast off the stern Wind or current bow
leave the stern sprint
leave the long bow
Wind or current aft
let the length of the stern.
we'll leave the sprinting forward
If the wind is strong from the outside: we will give an elbow strap or two to a buoy, pier or boat and we will turn (copper).
He argued: roll coils forming a cape (threads).
Take turns: a spin out in a bitt, cleat or railing to hold.
Make firm: it amounts to asserting a place by knots or kinks in such a manner as to subject and not moving.
Tying for Breast going through the bollard, bitt by another boat or dock the ring within the Cape, namely that the whip and the firm are on the ship itself.
Knots: a feature of all reef knot is the ease to get rid even when working under stress or wet.
Return: tie a rope to a cleat or bitt doing laps in eight, the last reversed (bit). Cote: going way back to the working end of a rope around the firm and within the breast. Allows you to secure the other knots and hitches round turn two. Llano: its purpose is to bring together two strands or ends of a rope in the same ore. As a guideline: its purpose is to form a loop without sewing and rigging a rope. Clove hitch: bite back knot used to affirm the working end of a rope and is very easy to undo. Margarita: Used to disable a damaged part of a rope.
2.2 .- Government.
Cane: In the case of government with the rudder blade cane falls to the opposite side of the rod that moves.
Wheel: in the case of government with the rudder blade wheel falls to the same side of the wheel is rotated.
Guardians: wiring harness that transmits the rotation of the wheel at the helm. You can also use hydraulic or servo mechanisms for this operation.
Action steering a ship swings toward the belt to where you put the rudder.
Speed of government: is defined as the minimum speed must take the boat to the rudder action is effective.>
Snatch is the speed of the boat.
Effect of the propeller in forward motion: the rudder is governed from the start, and the effect of rotation of the propeller is virtually nil.
Effect of the propeller in the reverse: where the rudder, ahead of the propeller in the sense of progress, and the effect of rotation of the propeller difficult to maneuver.
Right-handed helix: the effect of rotation of the propeller produces reverse the decline of the port aft.
Left-handed helix: the effect of rotation of the propeller produces reverse the fall of the stern to starboard.
Ciaboga with a propeller: Ciaboga is to spin the boat virtually on its own. The maneuver is accomplished by reversing the rudder for a band and going ahead with the rudder to the opposite, repeatedly. It is necessary to take into account the effect of the flow of the propeller without start.
Ciaboga with right-handed helix: reverse with the wheel to port, going ahead with the rudder to starboard.
Ciaboga with left-handed helix: reverse the rudder to starboard, going ahead with the rudder to port.
Ciaboga with two propeller: propeller goes ahead and one behind with a rate of about two thirds full ahead and behind.
2.3 .- Agents that influence the maneuver.
Wind: lateral displacement of the vessel by wind action on the draft is called depression. Depending on the shape of the draft and wind direction is also possible that the merchant vessel to luff (close to windward) or above (open to leeward).
Current: lateral displacement of the ship for action on the underwater current is called drift.
Waves: affect the whole of the boat maneuvers difficult.
Free downwind: is to stay away any danger which is to leeward and have sufficient maneuvering room to this band.
True wind: the wind that exists in a given time. It will be noted on a boat without a start.
Wind apparent in the wind ripped story that we will notice board shall be made, both direction and intensity of the true wind and the wind caused by the boat speed.
2.4 .- berthing maneuver.
Tie point: it is to tie the stern (sometimes bow) to dock with other boats moored in the same way.
Maneuver: You must take into account the band where the trachea and the tendency to fall off the boat when going astern as the turn of the helix. In case of strong wind is better with the bow into the dock.
Lashes: it stores two sprints and stern an elbow strap to the opposite side to the dock.
Parked side by side: the side is placed next to a ship moored to it. In the sailboats will prevent the sticks are the same height in order to avoid the blows and coupling between them.
Maneuver: to be made the same way as the mooring to a pier. In the event that the other anchor or moored vessel that the dead shall be in the wind.>
Lashes: usually tend the traverses and sprints to the other boat and long against the dock.
Alongside a quay or jetty: is tie in parallel to the dock.
Headwind parallel to the dock:
Berth will be an approximation with very little angle (20 degrees). Tying bow first and then along the length of the stern.
Shove: it lies a defense to forward, leave the sprinting forward and takes head on the defense opened the stern. We then move back down.
Following wind parallel to the dock:
Berth will be an approximation with very little angle (20 degrees). Tying first sprint forward, then aft along and then the long bow.
Shove: it lies a defense to forward, leave the sprinting forward and takes head on the defense opened the stern.
Wind perpendicular to the dock to the sea:
Docking: The approach angle is 60 º -70 º. It first moored length and sprint forward, then aft along.
Shove off: there are several alternatives, the wind in our favor the move. You can drop the ropes leaving the sprint once stern and bow we left open.
Wind perpendicular to the dock to the dock:
Docking: The approach angle is 40 º -50 º, allowing wind to bring us closer to the dock. Tying long bow first and then the aft
Shove: it lies a defense to forward, leave the sprinting forward and takes head on the defense opened the stern.
Moor to a buoy: moor to a buoy is subject to a strong chain or cable to the dead.
Maneuver: will approach the boat to the buoy with the wind.
Lashes: there will be a moor within a chain or solid element of the buoy and tied to the bow cleats or bollards.
2.5 .- Funding.
Definition: is the act of asserting a boat to the bottom using anchors and ropes or chains.
Buenos tenederos: fine sand and hard, compact mud, muddy sand and the like.
Bad tenederos: the stone, those in slope and hard bottom (rock, etc.)..
Location: we must offer shelter from the wind and currents. Dispondo should be adequate to the depth and length of our draft with anchoring. You must have a good outlet for in case of bad weather.
Breakdown: it serves to recognize the quality of the fund. Heavy piece at the base carrying a cavity filled with sebum and particles are removed adhering know the type of fund. The place is a fine sondaleza marking meters The lead that is tied and used to measure the depth.
Length of funding: the amount of string that is allowed to fall between three and four times the depth. If bad weather or too much current, five or six times the depth.>
Borneo Circle: the circle that forms the boat to swing around the anchor by wind or current.
Anchor: This occurs when the anchor is not well established and firmly to the bottom and drag on it. This avoids long plus chain, changing the anchorage, anchoring other anchor or holding with machine ahead.
Surveillance for anchoring: a boat anchor should not be viewed the same way as a boat moored and adequate surveillance must be maintained for the anchorage.
Marks: It is desirable to make reference markings on the coast to see if it is causing the anchor Anchor.
Alarms probe: it is possible to configure the electronic probes to indicate when the depth is less than stated.
Buoy: the place that becomes firm anchor to the cross and fastened to a buoy anchored to know where and to recover the anchor in case of castling.
With an anchor: the anchor and gets off the barbotan is disengaged. We are approaching the chosen site on the wind. We opened the chain brake as we filando blurted back. Once the chain filada we needed strong board.
With two anchors: is typically used in bad weather or poor quality of the anchorage.
A cat's whiskers: the two anchors at an angle not exceeding 120 º. Sail across, bottom first anchor to windward and then giving back to the leeward anchor.
Two anchors from the bow: the two anchors are close. Funds with an anchor and giving a little ahead the second drop anchor.
The incoming and ebb: anchoring a first anchor for the bow anchor and back down to the second stern, leaving both at 180 º. This allows us to control the swinging in estuaries and rivers.
Levar: is the action to collect (retrieve) the anchor and chain removed the anchoring situation.