7. THE MUSLIM WORLD
7.1. RECENT ARMED CONFLICTS The Gulf War (1990-1991)
• The Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. An international coalition led By the USA under UN mandate liberated Kuwait It imposed an embargo on Iraqi oil. • ¡ The Invasion of Afghanistan (2001) Consequence of the attack on New York And Washington on 11 September 2001 organized by Al-Qaeda It was based in Afghanistan and supported by the Taliban government. A coalition of troops from The US and allied countries overthrew the Taliban regime A provisional Government was established in its place. • The Invasion of Iraq (2003) There Was a fear that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (threat to world peace) The USA, the UK and other allied countries, including Spain, overthrew Saddam Hussein A new government was established in Iraq.
8.1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATIN AMERICA
1980s: Period of political instability due to military dictatorships and various Guerrilla movements. This caused a significant economic crisis that brought Inflation, debt, unemployment and poverty. 1990: democracy was established in Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua. But Cuba maintained a communist regime under the Rule of Fidel Castro. ¡ Strict economic readjustments were imposed by the IMF (International Monetary Fund) to repay debt ¡ Economic cooperation between Latin American countries was promoted through Mercosur and the Comunidad Andina de Naciones. Some countries in Latin America have become emergent powers thanks to: Wealth in natural resources North American and European companies moved Factories there to find cheap labour and new markets.
8.2. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, AN AREA OF INSTABILITY ¡ Sub-Saharan Africa is the most Underdeveloped area in the world Political instability Economic underinvestment Rapidly growing demography Social inequality Malnutrition Analphabetism Epidemics such as AIDS. The most significant geopolitical conflicts are caused By: Rivalries between tribes for historical, religious or ethic reasons, often Result of the process of decolonization. Control of natural resources and mines. These problems provoked interregional wars and civil wars that have caused Massacres and the exodus of the civilians. Many had to settle in refugee camps In neighbouring countries, where life is extremely hard. The most affected Countries are Liberia, Sierra Leona, Ethiopia.
9.1. THE UN AND PEACEMAKING
• The UN was created after the end of the WW2 (1945) ¡ Its headquarters are in New York ¡ Almost all the countries in the world have permanent representation There. The UN’s most important missions are: The achievement of world peace The Prevention of conflicts The delivery of humanitarian assistance.
¡ Recently, the peacekeeping forces (Blue Helmets or Blue Berets) have been sent On missions to restore peace in: ¡ El Salvador, Guatemala, ¡ The UN is also Involved in other issues: 1. •the protection of refugees 2. •the organization of Aid in areas of natural disaster 3. •the war against terrorism 4. •disarmament And nuclear non-proliferation 5. •the promotion of democracy, human rights and Gender equality.
9.2. INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS ¡ International world powers organize meetings to discuss World problems and economic issues outside the UN. The G-8 USA, Canada, France, The UK, Germany, Italy, Japan and Russia. The heads of these governments meet Every year at a summit to discuss the issues that concern them, as well as Global issues. The G-20 Has a similar principle but adds to the G-8 The European Union and 11 countries of more recent economic development.