In the late 1400s, most European did not know much about the world.
The European map of the world includes only Europe, Asia, and the top of Africa.
Their main trade route was the silk road, from Constantinople to china.
In the 15 century, spices, silk and luxury goods from asia were very important for the europeans.
In 1453 the ottoman army occupied Constantinople and blocked trade routes between Europe and asia
European kingdoms such as castile and Portugal began to explore the atlantic ocean.
They wanted to find an altenative trade route to india.
There were several improvements in navigation the compass is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the earth
The caravel ship: the caravel was an improvement on older ships because it could sail very fast and also sail well into the wind.
The portalans: the portulans contained maps of harbors, river mouths, and man made features visible from the sea.
The astrolabe: it was an instrument used to determine latitude from the position of the stars.