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T-9 crown. The reconquest Castellana had a breakthrough in the thirteenth century. St. Ferdinand finally joined Castile and Leon in 1230, and conqustó Cordoba, Jaen and Seville, Alfonso X the Wise won Murcia. The repopulation was done by the system of allotments. The kingdom's government was organized around the king, the royal council and Cortes.La economic base was farming and the export trade in wool. The winners were associated in the Mesta. Soical The model was stratified society. There were significant minorities of Moorish and Jews. It extended the official and literary use of the Castilian language and the first universities were founded. The Crown of Aragon. In the thirteenth century, James I the Conqueror took Mallorca and Valencia. In the Mediterranean joined Sicily, Sardinia and Naples. The monarchy had a pactista character. There were separate courts for Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia. It developed a very active trade controlled by the Mediterranean Sea Consulates effects of the Black Death there were very serious and important social movements, such as the remensa peasants. In the culture stands the figure of Ramon Llull. The end of the Middle Ages. In the fifteenth century, the peninsula was divided into 5 kingdoms: Castile, Aragon, Navarre, Portugal and Granada. The most outstanding monarch of Navarre during this period was Charles the Noble. In Granada Nazari dynasty ruled. The jewel of the art Nazari is the Alhambra in Granada. Arts, Gothic, Mudejar and Nazari. The 3 major Gothic cathedrals of Castile are those of Burgos, Leon and Toledo. In Aragon outstanding cathedrals of Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca. In painting highlighted the influence of the Flemish school. The Mudejar style is a mixture of Romanesque and Gothic art with elements of al-Andalus. The best example of art Nazari is the Alhambra in Granada, the last Muslim palace of the Peninsula.Madrid between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Continued restocking Real Madrid supported by clearly privileged. The kings held Señorialización process whereby prncipales placed in places to the nobles who were at his service. The kings unified laws to acquire more power in the councils of Madrid. Madrid in the fifteenth century. On the death of Henry IV in 1474, started another war between the Beltraneja `` Joan''and Isabella of Castile. Natural disasters and civil strife led to an increase dynastic social differences.

T-8 The prevalence of al-Andalus. The history of al-Andalus covers from the beginning of the eighth century until the end of XV. al-Andalus was first part of the Muslim empire: an emirate dependent, and, later, an independent emirate ruled from Cordoba by the Umayyads. The maximum period esplendorfue the Caliphate in the tenth century Then came the Taifa kingdoms and empires unification under North (amorávides and Almohad)Society and economy of al-Andalus. Andalusian society existed in several groups by ethnicity: Arabs, Berbers and Muladi. Jewish and Christian communities were tolerated Mozarabic. In an economy based on agriculture, highlighted the development of cities, trade and monetary circulation. The Andalusian art. the masterpiece of the Caliphate is the mosque of Cordoba. The art of the Taifa kingdoms notable for the contrast between rich decoration of its interiors with the outside sober. The Almohad art, characterized by its simple geometric decoration, flourished especially in Seville. The first Christian centers: siglo VIII and IX. The first core Christian emerged a few years after the invasion musUlman, in the mountains of Asturias. In the ninth century, the kingdom of Asturias and Galicia was understood aneixonó east fomrando the county of Castile. There were also other Christian centers in the Pyrenees, from which would spring the kingdom of Navarre and the county of Aragon. In the east, the Carolingian Empire established the Hispanic origin of the Catalan counties. Reconquest and repopulation: X to the ninth centuries. In the tenth century, the kings moved their capital of Asturias and Leon began to repopulate the lands of the Duero. Since the eleventh century, the kingdom of Castile became one of the main actors of the Reconquista after the capture of Toledo (1085). The kingdom of Navarre consilidó in the eleventh century. The kingdom of Aragon and the county of Barcelona, having achieved considerable success in the conquest of the Ebro valley, formed from the twelfth century the crown of Aragon. The repopulation of the conquered lands was made according to two basic systems: the haste and Concejil. In some areas or groups of Muslims remained Mudejar. A partie of the tenth century, the Christian kingdoms emerged in the early texts written in Romance languages.Madrid Muslim in the eighth to twelfth centuries. Madrid was a stronghold of Muslim advocacy since the early years of Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in the early eighth century. It was conquered by Christians for nearly 200 years later. During a century lived three sculptures, Muslim, Jewish and Christian. From the twelfth century, Madrid was a land of orderly and continuous recruitment, the kings granted privileges and intervened in the litigation the use of territories.

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