DIVIDING THE WORLD
Globalisation,has extended the culture and way of life the USA and some European countries to the rest of the world.
The world today can be divided into two main parts:central areas and peripheral areas.
Global cities(New York,London,Tokyo,Paris,Berlin)are the main decision-making centres,multinational companies,large banks and important international organisations are located.
SUPPORT FOR GLOBALISATION
Supporters of globalisation include international organisations like the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the International Monetary Fund the G8 and G20.
Use the following arguments:
-Globalisation promotes the exchange of goods,services,capital and people.
-This process benefits all countries and individuals.
-Globalisation bring people,countries and cultures closer.
-Globalisation leads to greater cooperation.
-The transmission of data enriches the lives of individuals.
MOVEMENT AGAINST GLOBALISATION
Social groups and non-governmental organisations(NGOs),organise protests that globalisation.Use the following arguments:
-Globalisation imposes a capitalist economic model.
-Decisions affecting national economies are made by supranational institutions.
-The most powerful countries impose their language,culture and customs on weaker
UNEQUAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Today,people often use the term North to refer to the industrialised world and South to refer to underdeveloped countries(also known as Third World).The following indicators are used:
-GDP per capita:in developed countries,it is over 100000 dollars.
The UN uses the Human Development Index(HDI),which includes economic data,health and education.
-Life expectancy at birth.
-Years of schooling.
-Have a high GDP and a high standard of living.
-Their economy is based on the tertiary sector,most people live in urban areas.
-Have their own technology
-Population ageing.Life expectancy is high.
-Literacy rate is high.
-There are enough public services.
-Have a democratic political system
-Have a weak economy,so GDP is low.
-Agriculture plays a very important role.
-Are very economically and technologically dependent on other countries.
-Population is young and death high.
-A large part of the population is illiterate.
-Poor transport and communications infrastructures.
-Health care and education services and inadequate.
-Political systems unstable democracies and even dictatorships.
Increased emissions of greenhouse gases to acid rain and destruction of the ozone layer.Global warming leads to:
-Melting of the polar ice caps and the disappearance of many glaciers.
-A rise in sea levels and destruction of coastlines and aquifers.
-Drought,leading to the disappearance of plant and animal species,deforestation and desertification.
Industrialised countries emit large amounts of carbon dioxide.
POLICIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
The European Union made a commitment to:
-Reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
-Decrease energy consumption and promote renewable energies.
-Provide incentives to companies that reduce their carbon dioxide emissions.
Many city councils around the world have put into practise Agenda 21,with the following objectives:
-Promotion of public transport.
-Control of heating systems.
-Recycling of urban waste.
-Maintenance of green areas.