Module 1. INTRODUCTION AND APPROACH TO MACROSOCIOLOGIA
1. SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION AS A SCIENCE. BASIC CONCEPTS. Sociology: the social studies and its relationship to education as a sociocultural phenomenon. 1.1. The Sociology of Education as a science and sociology in the context of the social sciences. Sociology of Education: Educational Sociology by the fact that interest in its relations with society and social functions. The industrialization and concern for the growing demand for schooling are two elements that concern the theoreticians to explain the development of sociology of education. It can be considered as a sociology that studies the relationships between society and education. It is an attempt to clarify the social and educational sociology from, and analyzes the social phenomena that influence the educational system. Study of the social life of people, human relations in groups, the structure of groups and social interactions within them, the study of specific societies. Classification of different Sociology: - sociological paradigms: functionalism , Marxism, sociology new credencialista theory, critical sociology, ethnomethodology, symbolic interactionism, phenomenology, etc.. - Consensus Sociology (Weber), Functionalism: society works well thanks to the work of citizens. There are small defects (poverty, crime ...). There is little rebels. - S. Conflict (Marx), Marxism: different view of the above. Man has always fought to preserve their privileges. The company remains from the force (police, army). Inequality between humans and society will be. - Superestructuralistes: idealists. They believe that history and the world move to human thinking. Interested in religion, art, science. / Role of Politics: Intermediate. It's been half thoughts and half are production models. / Infraestructuralistes: materialists. The changes occur after the material changes and then give the changes and social thought. Interested in the mechanisms of production. 1.2. Conceptualization of Sociology of Education from its basics. - Socialization: process through which people learn and accept the culture of a society, group or social class. Means to achieve the adaptation of individuals or groups in society. The difference between primary and secondary. Primary is conducted from learning the basic rules of behavior and a parent field (family level and most direct living child). Secondary: second step after acquiring the basic norms of social coexistence. They are learning new social and human relationships (school). - Culture is transmitted through socialization and education: this concept should be understood from the standpoint of social culture, set of beliefs, customs, values, habits, activities, social patterns, forms of production, technology, which characterize a particular society or group. - Acculturation: the process by which a culture foreign to a group or community imposes on itself, causing its gradual extinction (trans: when a culture removes another). -Enculturating: learning process of their own culture, it is very difficult to give because of the hierarchical position of the various subcultures that exist in a particular cultural area and in the various societies. It is the struggle to perpetuate itself or a place in the cultural hierarchy. - Social Stratification: This is how social class structure of society in different social strata with a situation structurally hierarchical. It is the classification of different social strata in a more open system or closed depending on the type of society in question. - Social classes: groups or clusters of people who enjoy the same living conditions and are located in the same social stratum and / or socioeconomic status. Marxian concept and determined by the relations of production and distribution of capital, contextualised in a dynamic class struggle in a sense conflictivist and class consciousness. Joint families with the same position within the hierarchical social stratification. Status: defining elements of social stratification, as the economic criteria on the cultural predominance. - Genre: differentiator and discriminator. Sex discrimination is the concept used to define this situation. - Ethnic group: with distinct cultural characteristics is a group that shares a distinct cultural history. - Group social group of people who enjoy some kind of social interaction. The group can be defined as a group of people that enjoy the same common culture and have sufficient awareness of identity as a group, which distributed the roles and status. They are usually divided into primary (direct type relationships, face to face considerable degree of intimacy and emotional ties) and secondary (indirect and formal types of relationships with few links). - Group-class: Group regarding the school system. Place concrete action socializing school in a predominantly formal sense. There are shown the basic elements of the institutional organization and are different levels (formal and informal, primary and secondary) in which social relations group is conditioned by the fact that the role of the teacher comes to school organization determinadt established. - Institution name: is a type of social organization that society has managed to convey some sort of operation generalizing much of the population. It is a structured system of social relations and behavior patterns that are recognized as fundamental to society. - Social organization: from microsociologia is a group formed specifically to achieve certain objectives. Social organizations may be voluntary and coercive. They operate with a degree of hierarchical bureaucracy are important. - Social change: changes as a result of the evolution of society and a change in behavior or in the basic structures of society or group. When a change is called radical social transformation. - Social Conflict: threatening social stability as a result of the tensions that arise in contrast to the pressure that society exerts on the dynamics of change and perpetuate the structures of the past. -Control social forms and processes that allow society to maintain order and social stability in terms of social pressure to ensure that individuals and groups conform to their social function. Some regulatory elements are socialization, education, justice, bureaucracy, etc.., All those people mentalizing mechanism to adapt to society and acts as an element of pressure to achieve a suitable degree of social cohesion the needs of society. - Social function: basic concept for the functionalist, the manifest functions, which are those components of a known group or society, and the latent or hidden, that the members of the group or society are not as clear or unclear. - Family: an agent of socialization and education: The basic organizational form for the society. - The school: the institutional instrument of socialization and formal education. It is an institution that has the aim of formally educated individuals and to society to provide adequately socialized because they are useful. Being simplistic, we can say that the school meets the social need to transmit culture to younger generations with the intention to socialize them, integrate them and adapt them to the society to act on it.
2. SOCIOLOGY of socialization and education. EDUCATION AS A PHENOMENON PRICES. SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION MULTICULTURAL. Education, as an element of cultural transmission and culturalitzadora in a general sense, is a mechanism of cultural and social reproduction. Education can be understood as an element in the sense of reducing conflict. Achieving a cohesive society is one of the functions of socialization, which is used for education as a tool of social control. 2.1. Socialization as a process and its relationship to education. Socialization is the path followed to incorporate individuals into society. Socialization from sociology understood as learning social life. It is the process by which people learn to internalize the cultural and environmental elements, ie, the subject learns to integrate the structure of his personality and culture gained and adapt to their cultural environment. The problem arises when the influences are external to the group and have a character of dominance, resulting in a aculturadora socialization, especially through the media. This is the case or the effect of cultural MacDonaldisation Disney. Television and computers are affecting the commercialization of the classroom, the commodification of our lives, but also have effects on nursery and entertain children while not even bother making noise. The child is decontextualised from their social environment. The socialization process affects education, whether we speak of the formal and informal socializing, the primary or secondary. Socializing agents, family, school, peer groups, unions, business, mass communication, the environment (whether rural or urban), social class, group, groups etnicoculturals are very diverse but dependent on the economic and cultural dynamics. 2.2. Culture, education and society. Education as a cultural phenomenon. In our society there is a hierarchical social structure, causing relations of domination and these are reflected in areas that affect cultural socialization. Sociology is a valid tool, from the standpoint of social science to analyze this complexity.2.3. Multiculturalism education multicultural society. Often in a world as hierarchical as the current reality is assimilationist and universalist is that standardises and uniform. Mallorca: In the context of the school we illustrate two different situations of minority education: North African immigrants in sa Pobla farming village so far, and attempts to integrate Roma in the municipality of Palma, predominantly urban s 'must try to match the theme of multiculturalism with the issue of cultural identity in Majorca of the "welfare society" and in the process of complete urbanization. The cultural diversity that constantly speaks, is apparently a different charity, but it is hierarchical, conflict, according to an exclusive and provocative social structure of racism and xenophobia, social exclusion and not only from the perspective of class but of culture and ethnicity. The situation of cultural and educational inequalities exceeds difficult if not get a model society where respect for minority cultures and exceed set of cultural hierarchy. We are directly conditioned by environmental factors and urban: the children can no longer play in the street as they pass many cars or because there is insecurity, not to play balls in the street, but at times they are free to the TV or the computer or to another machine. Large organizations, multinationals, banks, savings banks, massifiquen and organize our lives and our economic and social relations. Even theoretically, native products spreading or opening the borders to alien cultures to attract customers. It is a frivolous way of looking for cultural diversity and sell the product, is the new form of mercantilism. 3. EDUCATION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE. THE EDUCATION SYSTEM AS A social sub. 3.1. The social structure as an organization of social relations. The Western capitalist society and has developed a dynamic contrast enhanced, unless they are against the minimum structural stability. But this raises many questions from the standpoint of quality of human life, because they really steps forward and steps backward. But with increasing unemployment, where the competitiveness and quality is measured in terms of economic profitability id'acumulació. It is a technocratic capitalism tends to consider a global system as their own. The school and the education system in general is nothing but a social institution and, therefore, it becomes a structure within another structure that is wider society. 3.2. Groups, institutions, organizations, as elements of social structure. Desigualitària The social structure is an issue that is evident in the social stratification that makes the social structure causing forms of social exclusion considered as natural capitalism, which traditionally have justified the functionalist and that education does little to correct them, in fact creates a favorable environment from socioeconomic system. The institutions provide formal body established culture and / or parent, which in turn determines the institutionalization of social relations and processes of socialization. The culture of a group or class is considered the correct, true, unquestionable, that does not necessarily coincide with the ruling. Legitimitzadora dominant culture is one that enjoys a privileged position which causes the reproduction of hierarchical social relations in the structure of society. The nuclear family of parents and children becomes a single bond of collective life in society where microsociological given its individualism. The role of men and women has changed.3.3. The school as a social subsystem. The education system and school (kindergarten, primary, secondary, vocational, university) is part of the dynamic demands of the social structure for its consolidation and survival, is a social subsystem . Increasingly, education is affected by the play of supply and demand in a society where power relations are often expressed in economic terms, ie in terms of privatization, where the conceptions of emancipatory educational theories that are not become the postmodern pragmatic, that situated as part of the past or are manipulated into superficiality and go to swell the chapter on behavioral unidirectionality. The construction of the education system as a school system with the legacy of the Enlightenment, properly given to the nineteenth century in the field of structuring the estatnació resulting liberalburgés reformism. Understood education as a control element of social stability, moral and material progress. Solutions that politicians raised, staking needed: - Establishment of normal schools to train teachers (in 1842 he created the College of Islands) - selective promotion of primary education - Increase the budget devoted to educational issues - Centralization - Spanish version. The bourgeoisie, on the whole of Spain, failed to take this power tool that bureaucrats, officials and politicians put in their service of compulsory schooling. The church was able to maintain its control over the school system and education. In the case of the Balearic Islands of Mallorca and in particular we consider the creation of the Balearic Institute of Secondary School Normal Islands or Seminar on Primary Teachers' Instruction, people like Francis Riutort Ramon Riutort, director of the Normal School, Lancaster implementation methods in primary schools, the problems of the Spanish and desruralització progressive, and lack of teacher encourage new primary school instruction. Then create the Normal School in 1872 women, was created in 1879 from the School William encrypt Pollensa Business School in 1880 in Palma, in the framework of the Free Institution of Education in Madrid. But that was another era and a different environment that we have studied so far, with the Business School was intended to promote a new model of island economy and promote trade and new ways were needed to promote a new model of training. The panorama after 39 was devastating. It was a defeat physical and moral education in the hopes of a people and culturalization were finally dashed. 3.4. Considerations in the educational system as a subsystem of society. The terms of the social structure and economic structure are great educational system that is in this sense, subordinate to society. Schools can be considered as a relatively autonomous institutions, but always framed within wider structures of society. The school is considered an investment, at least ideologically, by the current neoliberal order. At this moment we are experiencing a process of modernizing the education system and school from the Europeanization and Westernization, within the framework of a conservative neoliberal capitalism. The current educational system is a formula of autonomy through decentralization, conserving habits as centralist curriculum plans from the central power, increasing the degree of specialization to the detriment of generalist teachers, expansion of non-compulsory levels, demand for the level of free child , recovering protection to private schools, a kind of modern school system neoprivatització criteria neoliberal not overcome educational inequalities, the incorporation of effective management in the educational system, which covers other intentions, the subsidy and public concert by private interests.the need to adapt the school system to the demands of the structure of the division of labor in a society technified and welfare. Required to establish rules that encourage a more prepared in accordance with the requirements of today's economy based on specialization and technical training more effective. This can lead to dependence on the education of the dominant interests of private enterprise. Training and technical technified can slowly win the game to other types of formations more humanised, to the detriment of a more globalized educational vision of the human and obviously at the expense of the humanities classics. The educational system as a social subsystem can stop contemplating environmental factors such as mass media, advertising, not for its effects on the awareness of individuals and collectives. It has nothing to do with a mentality of solidarity, culturalist or pacifist. Another obvious change is the new structure of the formal education system, the level for children (6 years) and primary (up to 12 years before basic general education until the age of 14) of secondary education (until 16) or high school (up to 18 years), vocational training is delayed from 16 years (before age from 14). It straightens its incorporation in the labor system, this means extending their family dependence, which does not mean that there are other elements such as the fact that a greater number of people benefiting from education and individuals can mature more slowly. The University Reform Law did not dare to go beyond what is allowed an elitist and classist institution at a time, with a power neofeudal, like the professors who went to the heads of department and professors themselves (according to their degree of power), and pressure groups in college. 4. Social stratification and education. Social hierarchy and conflict education. SCHOOL OF SOCIAL PERFORMANCE conditionals. Western societies that are put as models of open society and a relatively high degree of mobility of an upright. It is a justification of the reasons for the rise and maintenance of social desigualitària a society where education is used as an element of social promotion. In this case the class struggle is an element that complicates the dynamics of capitalism that believes that everyone should have their place in society, according to the place. Apparently, the merits and not the inheritance would be significant al'ascensió social elements, which do not always fit the reality, given that the social influence factors such as relations of privilege for the family origin and environmental opportunities for unregulated access to studies, the possibility to enter the circles of information and knowledge. 4.1. The social stratification and educational inequality. The educational inequality is due largely to social inequality as an institution is not isolated from social reality, but this inequality does not play like a photocopy, the school can play somehow the role of education and act as a dynamic element of social structuring elements and provide some correction of inequalities. However, the equality of educational opportunities are not equivalent to social opportunities. The highest qualification required, less percentage of working-class favored, did not have the same opportunities to access long-term studies. The social mobility that we consider refers to the degree of ascending or descending movement that occurs in the system of social stratification. If a step class to class, is vertical (upward-downward) if given the same social stratum or class, is horizontal.In the Western system of social classes, which are considered "open" social mobility is quite possible because the stratification tends to have less stiffness, and whether belonging to the ruling class is determined by capital accumulation, which gives social prestige, not by criteria of inheritance. The upward mobility is the justification of capitalist competition, which generates a system of inequality and social exclusion hardly surmountable. 4.3. The conflicts of social class and interest groups. The role of education. The issue of social stratification gives rise to maintain a focus conflictivist sociological analysis of education, although education through a technocratic desigualadors trying to hide their effects. Enter the term social class as a player class culture, where education plays an important role, becomes an element declassedor in favor of bourgeois culture as a source of transmission of culture in an urban society, which tends to be generalized from the viewpoint of globalization, globalization misnamed. It is the legitimisation of the established order. The school hardly takes into account the interests of class to respect the culture of popular class, working or working and therefore can not guarantee their performance from their cultural understanding of abstract language school. Each family will have a set of education according to their attitude to class membership, but remember that society is moving towards the adoption of the dominant culture here can be defined as a bourgeois culture. The education component has a high class because it favors certain social classes, those most suited to the demands of school and social demands. 4.4. The social determinants of school performance. The working classes have less incentives to encourage environmental adaptation to the demands of the curriculum and the power relations school. The social selection of the school is through a process that encourages there to even the most privileged sectors of society. The possibility of studying and continuing studies depends on social origin.
Module 2. APPROACH TO THE MICRO-MACRO SOCIOLOGY