Socratic virtues

Classified in Philosophy and ethics

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Utilitarianism - Mill

  • Why intentions/duty/inclination don't really matter (for Utilitarianism):
    • To utilitarians, intentions don't matter because when looking at a situation you need to strip away the intentions so that you can look at the act alone as good or bad
  • Explain why happiness/pleasure is the desired goal of morality in Utilitarianism
    • Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote overall human happiness
  • The relationship between virtue and disinterestedness
    • Virtue can still be desired but should be desired disinterestedly (so basically not gaining virtue for your own benefit)

Deontology - Kant

  • Principle of volition
    • A principle that governs any rational will
  • Why/how consequences aren't the deciding factor for ethical goodness
    • Deontology derives the goodness of one's conduct from the character of the behavior itself rather than the outcomes of the conduct
  • Maxim
    • A maxim is the rule or principle on which you act.

Virtue Ethics - Aristotle

  • Human virtue situated within non-human virtues
    • The excellence of the eye makes both the eye and its work good; for it is by the excellence of the eye that we see
  • Intellectual Virtues Vs. Moral Virtues
    • Intellectual Virtue = Comes about through teaching and develops over time (Ex. Wisdom and Understanding, Persevence, Intellectual Humility, etc.
    • Moral Virtue = Moral Virtues = not innate - they are acquired by developing the habit of exercising them. An individual becomes truthful by acting truthfully, or becomes unselfish by acting unselfishly.
  • Role/importance of habit
    • Our natural tendencies, the raw material we are born with, are shaped and developed through a long and gradual process of education and habituation.

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