Utilitarianism - Mill
- Why intentions/duty/inclination don't really matter (for Utilitarianism):
- To utilitarians, intentions don't matter because when looking at a situation you need to strip away the intentions so that you can look at the act alone as good or bad
- Explain why happiness/pleasure is the desired goal of morality in Utilitarianism
- Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote overall human happiness
- The relationship between virtue and disinterestedness
- Virtue can still be desired but should be desired disinterestedly (so basically not gaining virtue for your own benefit)
Deontology - Kant
- Principle of volition
- A principle that governs any rational will
- Why/how consequences aren't the deciding factor for ethical goodness
- Deontology derives the goodness of one's conduct from the character of the behavior itself rather than the outcomes of the conduct
- A maxim is the rule or principle on which you act.
Virtue Ethics - Aristotle
- Human virtue situated within non-human virtues
- The excellence of the eye makes both the eye and its work good; for it is by the excellence of the eye that we see
- Intellectual Virtues Vs. Moral Virtues
- Intellectual Virtue = Comes about through teaching and develops over time (Ex. Wisdom and Understanding, Persevence, Intellectual Humility, etc.
- Moral Virtue = Moral Virtues = not innate - they are acquired by developing the habit of exercising them. An individual becomes truthful by acting truthfully, or becomes unselfish by acting unselfishly.
- Role/importance of habit
- Our natural tendencies, the raw material we are born with, are shaped and developed through a long and gradual process of education and habituation.