Spain Period

Classified in Social sciences

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1Describe the reforms promoted by conservative (Maura) and liberal (Canalejas) politicians prior to 1917.

Maura:promoted revolution from abobe that consisted of reforming laws releated to taxes, voting, local administrations and strikes. However these measures did nothing to adress the existing corruption and election rigging

Jose Canalejas: limited the power of the church, regulated employment, established obligatory military service and decentralised the Spanish government.

2Which social groups played important roles in the protest movements of 1917? Why were they unhappy with the existing polityical system?

Authoritarian government, lower classes and the army. Public dissatisfaction with the authoritarian government and the conservative Eduardo Dato

3What action did the opposition take?

They demanded the governments resignation and called for a special session of the Cortes.

4How did the government respond to their actions?

By temporarily repress these strikes and managed to reach agreements with military and political leaders

5How did Primo de Rivera come to power?

He lead a military coup he claimed his military dictatorship would guarantee social order, and Alfonso XII, bussinessmen and conservatives support him, based on an authoritarian regime.

6Describe the period of the civil government and how the dictatorship ended. What are the pros and cons of this period?

7What parties made up the provissional government? Describe their reforms. Which social groups must have welcomed them?

Republicans, socialists and nationalists. Amnesty for political prisoners and the freedom to form political parties and unions, labour laws to improve the working conditions of labourers, a provisional Catalan government, a new election system (caciquism), the republican-socialist

8Summarise themain principles of the 1931 Constitution. Why was it seen as both democratic and progressive?

Accepted the possibility of autonomous governments, established universal suffrage for men and women for the first time, declared the state non-denominational and permited marriage and divorce, the teaching of religion in schools was banned, recognised individual rights and established extensive civil liberties

5Make a table to summarise the people and organisations that were opposed to the reforms.

6Why were industrial workers, day labourers and peasants dissatisfied with republican reforms?How did they express their protests?

Because of the slow reform process, specially in the area of agriculture, the radicalñisation of UGT, the communists and the anarchists, and the initation of anarchist groups doing armed uprisings.

3What political orientation was represened by the candidates elected in 1933?What changes did they make?

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