TUDORS (1485-1603) HENRY VIII (1491-1547) King of England from 1509. 2nd Tudor monarch. Best known for his 6 marriages and 4 efforts to have 1st marriage, Catherine of Aragon, annulled & marry his new love, Anne Boleyn. England was a Catholic country and the head of the Church, the Pope, would not allow divorce, Catholich believed marriage for life. Henry VIII made all Church officials swear that he was its leader, so he could arrange his own divorce. This process called the reformation and confirmed by the Act of Supremacy (1534) declared Henry to be the Supreme Head of the Church of England.England had accepted the separation, Henry went one step further and the chief’s minister place was taken by Thomas Cromwell.He declared any monks who spoke against him traitors and had them executed.1536-1540 Henry VIII ordered the closing down of all: Roman Catholic monasteries and convents across his kingdom. He took ownership of all their possessions.Dissolution of the Monasteries.During this Thomas More beheaded for refusing to accept king Henry VIII as Head of Church. ELISABETH I (1533-1603) The Virgin Queen/Gloriana, Queen of England &Ireland from 1558. Last monarch House of Tudor &daughter of Henry VII &Anne Boleyn. Most glorious queen of England. Tough childhood, since her father had her mother executed when Elizabeth was only 3 years old, and she was taught by ladies in waiting.CHURCH LAWS. Anglican,she tried not to oppress the Catholics as her predecessors had. Forced accept the title of Supreme Governor Church of England rather than the title of Supreme Head, considered unacceptable for a woman. The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May 1559. Public to swear loyalty to the monarch as the supreme. SPANISH ARMADA. King Philip II king of Spain, decided to take the war to England, as reaction to Francis Drake’s destruction of Spanish fleet of warships, Spanish Armada set sail for the channel 12 July 1588. Fleet met with a series of misfortune, such miscalculation, bad weather and more importantly attacks of English fire ships &was defeated. The defeat of the Spanish gleet was also a potent propaganda victory and was used as a symbol of God’s favor. COLONIES.1570s & 1580s, Elizabeth I royal permission to two Englishmen to colonise America. As Spain had laid claim to much of South and Central America, England’s attention was directed to the eastern coast of North America. Sir Humphrey Gilbert led three unsuccessful attempts to establish a colony in America, but in 1583 was lost at sea while returning home. The following year, Elizabeth granted a patent to his half-brother, Walter Ralegh, transferring Gilbert’s rights to a large swathe of land on America’s east coast. The first successful settlement, Jamestown, was established in 1607, under the rule of James VI.