The city center: The activities of a city's inhabitants influence the way a city is organised. Although these activities are often found all over the city, many of them are concentrated in the distinctive place known as the city centre. The city centre has its own character and is a reference point for its citizens and for visitors. The city centres of many cities, particularly European cities, have historic and emblematic building, as well as the headquarters of companies and public administration bodies (councils,ministries,etc...). City centres also host shopping areas and entertaiment centres. North American city centres contain the CBD (Central Business District), which features a landscape of skucrapers and tertiary sector activities. The intensive and extensive growth of some cities has driven economic or administrative activities away from the centre to other parts of the city with good transport links.
Cities in rich countries: -They consist of a historic centre (Europe),-expansion zones that are totally built-up, and the outskirts, -their population are stagnant or declining that causes conurbations and metropolitan areas to form, -they have high level of technological developments, -virtually unlimited supply of energy and products for the inha, -there are problems of social inequality.
Cities in poor countries: -the structures consist of a colonial centre and large expansion zones, -they are densenly populated, -there is great social inequality, -most people have very limited access to healthcare and other essential services.
The hierarchy of cities and towns: -National city: this is the state capital or another large city. It has considarable international influence. -Regional city: Its a medium-sized city with fewer urban functions. -Small city or town: Its area of influence is provincial or regional.
The hierchary of spanish cities: -National cities: this category's two cities are Madrid and Barcelona, due to their size of their populations and their large, metropolitan areas. Important public institutions and large companies are located in both cities. -Regional cities: Their population its between 500.000 and 1.5 million. -Sub-regional cities: These have between 200.000 and 500.000 inha, their administrative role attracts people and servicies. -District capitals: this group includes towns of between 10.000 and 50.000 inha. This have facilities and infrastructures that allow them to influence places around them.
Andorra-Andorra la vella, Ireland-Dublin, Iceland-Reykjavik, Sweden-Stockholm, Finland-helsinki, Latvia-Riga, Lithuania-Vilnius, Belarus-Minsk, Ukraine-Kiev, Poland-Warsaw, Germany-Berlin, Denmark-Copenhaguen, Switzerland-Bern, Malta-Valetta, Albania-Tirana, Montenegro-Podgorica, Bosnia-Sarajevo, Croatia-Zagreb, Slovenia-Ljubljana, Hungary-Budapest, Slovakia-Bratislava, Czech R-Prague, Modava-Chisinau, Romania-Bucharest, Serbia-Belgrade, Macedonia-Skopje, Bulgaria-Sofia, Russia-Moscow.