- Culture: One of the most common characteristics is ‘cultural identity’. Share the same customs, language and traditions, they prefer to be together.
- Lenguage: A significant factor in movements of independence. “Linguistic identity”.
- Religion: “Religious identity”. Many independence movements because of traditional problems between Catholics & Protestants.
- Geography: “Geographical factors”. Natural frontiers?
- 1805: Napoleon created the Kingdom of Italy.
- 1820: Italy, under 7 different states.
- 1820: the “Carbonari”, a revolutionary group dedicated to the unification of Italy, called the “Risorgimento”.- 1861: Unification of Italy.
- 1859: Mazzini (“Soul of Italy”), Cavour and Garibaldi back from exile; helped in the unification of Italy.
- 1861: Unification of Italy.
- 1871: Rome, capital of the Italian nation.
Germany (Philipp Veit):
- 1848: Frankfurt parliament, Germain in the middle
- March 1848: Germany was born (in Berlin)
- After Congress of Vienna: Germany belonged to Prussia and Russia.
- Situation: 39 states:
- Different frontiers, currencies and systems of government.
- Same language, culture & history (strong connection to Romanticism).
- Steps to the unification:
- 1834: Zollverein (financial union): Prussia, stronger; Austria, weaker.
- 1848: creation of the Parliament of Frankfurt for all Germans.
- Otto Von Bismarck, guided the unification with victories over Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) & France (1870)
- 1871: The “Second Reich” (German Empire) in Versailles.
- King Wilhelm I of Prussia named German Kaiser (emperor, the main executive power).
- A federal state based on the Constitution of 1871:
- The regions retained local government.