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- Culture: One of the most common characteristics is ‘cultural identity’. Share the same customs, language and traditions, they prefer to be together.

- Lenguage: A significant factor in movements of independence. “Linguistic identity”.

- Religion: “Religious identity”. Many independence movements because of traditional problems between Catholics & Protestants.

- Geography: “Geographical factors”.  Natural frontiers?

Italy (risorgimento):

- 1805: Napoleon created the Kingdom of Italy.

- 1820: Italy, under 7 different states.

- 1820: the “Carbonari”, a revolutionary group dedicated to the unification of Italy, called the “Risorgimento”.- 1861: Unification of Italy.

- 1859: Mazzini (“Soul of Italy”), Cavour and Garibaldi back from exile; helped in the unification of Italy.

- 1861: Unification of Italy.

- 1871: Rome, capital of the Italian nation.

Germany (Philipp Veit):

- 1848: Frankfurt parliament, Germain in the middle

- March 1848: Germany was born (in Berlin)

- After Congress of Vienna: Germany belonged to Prussia and Russia.

- Situation: 39 states:

- Different frontiers, currencies and systems of government.

- Same language, culture & history (strong connection to       Romanticism).

- Steps to the unification:

- 1834: Zollverein (financial union): Prussia, stronger;  Austria, weaker.

- 1848: creation of the Parliament of Frankfurt for all  Germans.

- Otto Von Bismarck, guided the unification with  victories over Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) & France  (1870)

- 1871: The “Second Reich” (German Empire) in Versailles.
- King Wilhelm I of Prussia named German Kaiser (emperor, the main executive power).
- A federal state based on the Constitution of 1871:
- The regions retained local government.

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