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“malloc” or “memory allocation” method is used to dynamically allocate a single large block of memory with the specified size. It returns a pointer of type void which can be cast into a pointer of any form. 

ptr = (cast-type*) malloc(byte-size)
“calloc” or “contiguous allocation” method is used to dynamically allocate the specified number of blocks of memory of the specified type. It initializes each block with a default value ‘0’.

ptr = (cast-type*)calloc(n, element-size);
“free” method is used to dynamically de-allocate the memory. The memory allocated using functions malloc() and calloc() are not de-allocated on their own. Hence the free() method is used, whenever the dynamic memory allocation takes place. It helps to reduce wastage of memory by freeing it.

“realloc” or “re-allocation” method is used to dynamically change the memory allocation of a previously allocated memory. In other words, if the memory previously allocated with the help of malloc or calloc is insufficient, realloc can be used to dynamically re-allocate memory.

ptr = realloc(ptr, newSize);

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