5.2. PERIOD OF COEXISTENCE: THE DÉTENTE (1956-1976) The USSR emerged as a nuclear Power. Not only the USA could start a nuclear war. The possibility of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) A period of dialogue and relaxed international political tensions (the détente) started
¡ During this period there were a number of conflicts that put this period of Dialogue in danger. In 1961 the communists built the Berlin wall, which Physically separated West Berlin from the eastern part. In 1962 the USSR Attempted to install military bases in Cuba and provoked the Cuban Missile Crisis. Vietnam War. The communist government of North Vietnam tried to unify The country and the USA intervened to help the proWestern government of the South.
5.3. A RETURN TO TENSION AND THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1977-1991) Tension period (1977-1985) • The USSR: ¡ Tried to achieve military hegemony by installing Nuclear missiles (US-20) in Asian and European territories under its control, Some of them directly pointing towards Western Europe. ¡ The invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 in support of the communist government ¡ USSR intervention In some African conflicts.
Tension Period (1977-1985) • The USA: ¡ Supported some Latin American dictatorships and Increased its military budget. ¡ President Ronald Reagan started a Program of Strategic Defense, known as Star Wars, to develop an anti-missile shield.
The End of the Cold War • The URSS led by Gorbachev changed its policy (1985) ¡ Reopened the dialogue with the USA ¡ Withdrew troops from Afghanistan ¡ Gave More autonomy to the socialist republics. ¡ The Cold War finished with the Dissolution of the USSR in 1991. ¡ The USA then became the sole world super Power.
6.3. MEASURES TO SOLVE THE CRISIS
• Some Governments such as USA (Reagan) and Britain (Thatcher) adopted neo-liberal Policies: 1. • Reduced the intervention of the state in the economy 2. • Privatized public companies 3. • Reduced public spending 4. • Reduced social Services 5. • Made employment laws more flexible 6. • Reduced taxes
7.1. REFORMS IN THE SOVIET UNION ¡ When Brezhnev died (1982) and USSR was suffering a Political and economic crisis. ¡ Gorbachev implemented a number of reforms: Perestroika, or “reconstruction” - series of political and economic reforms Acceptance of private enterprise and personal economic incentives. Recognition Of different political parties and free elections These reforms opened the USSR Up to modernity and reduced the intervention of the state.
Glasnost, Or “openness” allow freedom of speech, opinion and the press Tried to achieve Transparency in politics ¡ These reforms were strongly opposed by: Traditional Communists They believed they would destroy the communist system Radical Reformers They believed they did not go far enough.
5.1 THE FIRST STAGE (1939-1941) ¡ Victories of the Axis Powers. ¡ Germany launched a “blitzkrieg” or lightning war à concentrating a great force of tanks and planes To break through enemy lines. ¡ Thanks to Russia’s neutrality, the Nazis Conquered most of Western Europe (Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Low Countries and France). ¡ United Kingdom managed to stop them.
Italy Supported Germany and attacked France from the south. ¡ France was forced to Sign an armistice and recognize the division of its territory: ¡ An occupied Territory under German control ¡ A collaborationist government in the south Established in the city of Vichy. ¡ The Nazis went on to conquer: ¡ North Africa ¡ The Balkans ¡ Started the invasion of Russia, reaching Moscow and Stalingrad (1941).
5.2 THE SECOND STAGE (1941-1945) ¡ In 1941 Japan destroyed the American fleet at Pearl Harbour, and this provoked the USA to join the war