UNIT 8: THE COLD WAR AND THE PROCESS OF DECOLONISATION 1.1. THE WORLD AFTER THE SECOND World War After the WW2, two victorious world powers emerged: The USA and The USSR .They became adversaries because they had different: Political system , economic system and social system. Each power looked for allies in the rest of the world and attempted to influence foreign governments. Two opposed blocs: USA: insisted on the expulsion of the communists from Western Europe .USSR: looked to establish communist governments in Eastern and Central Europe 1.2. THE CONTROL OF THE BLOCS .In 1947, the American president, Harry S. Truman... Denounced the imposition of communist regimes in Eastern and Central Europe. Offered economic and military aid to the countries that were in danger of falling under communist control, such as Turkey and Greece (Truman Doctrine).Increased the number of American military bases in Europe. Offered financial help for the reconstruction of Europe (Marshall Plan). The Soviet Union:Denounced American imperialism in Western Europe and Offered its help to those countries that were against American imperialism (Jdanov Doctrine) 1.3. THE COLD WAR The political, military, diplomatic and ideological tensions between the two blocs gave rise to the term Cold War (1945-1991) Each bloc tried to impose its superiority through the following METHODS: 1. Economic cooperation: The Western bloc (Marshall Plan (1947) to help with the reconstruction of Europe. )The eastern bloc.(COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) in 1949 to coordinate the economies of its member states. )2. Military alliances: Western bloc: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 1949 Eastern bloc: the Warsaw Pact was signed (1955) 3. Military power: Both invested in nuclear and conventional weapons to threaten the enemy. This balance of terror prevented a direct war, but did not prevent indirect confrontations in other countries, especially in the third world. 2. THE CAPITALIST WORLD: THE USA AND JAPAN (1945-1973) 2.1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS CAPITALIST BLOC (USA) : JAPAN, WESTERN EUROPE, Influence in: Latin America, Africa, Oceania . DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT : 1. Recognition of individual rights and freedom. 2 The división of power. 3 existence of political parties with different ideologies(democratic elections).4. Capitalist system of economy based on private property and free market.During these years the western economy experienced a significant growth due to: 1.An increase in productivity. 2.The development of international commerce. 3.Moderate state intervention in economic matters . This period is known as the Golden Age of Capitalism.