- Heaven v Pender: C was a painter employed to paint a ship while staging on supplied by D. The stage is full & resulted that C's injury. D was allowed to claimed on basic contracted obligation.
Categories of relationship: Driver = Road suer / Doc = Patient
- Donoughue v Stevenson(forseeablility): Mrs Donoughue's friend brought her a ginger beer. She consumed about half of the bottle which was mark of opaque glass, she found that a decomposed snail floated out. She was then unable to claim through breach of warranty of a contract. She was not party to any contract. Therefore, she issued the proceedings against Steveson which brings up top HOC.
2 stages test
- Anns V Merton LBC: First ask whether the wrong door & the person has suffered damage. There is a sufficient relationship of proximity. Next, of 1st ques is answered affirmatively, it is necessary to consider whether there are any other considerations which are negative.
Test for DOC today
- Carpo Industries v Dickman is single composite test which can applies to every situation to see whether DOC is owed.
- Haley v London Electricity Board: C is blind while walking on the pavement had injured himself when tripped over a long hammer left by the ground the D with intention of warming. The HOC found that the D owned a duty of can to ensure the safety to all persons.