Steps to war - aggression by japan, italy and germany 1931-1939

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  • Failure of the league of nations: Originated at the end of World War I to keep peace, did not fulfil its aspirations. The League owed to sanction countries attacking others. The League depended of the member countries to reinforce its decisions. In 1931, japan invaded Manchuria, in 1935, Italy invaded abyssinia and again league failed to act. When Hitler started breaking the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the League also failed to act.

  • Appeasement policy and non-intervention: European countries tried to appease Hitler, let him do in order to avoid war,  In this way, expansionist countries got what

they wanted at the expense of others, and was going to be a cause for the war.

Western democracies did not help the Spanish Republic while Hitler and Mussolini supported the military coup. It increased the possibilities of war enormously. It made Germany and its rearmament race stronger.


Important territorial losses: Germany lost 13% of its territory,  Alsace and Lorraine return to France; parts of East Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland, danzing declared free cities.

Military conditions: Demilitarisation and a fifteen-year occupation of the Rhineland;

War reparations: Germany is obliged war reparations to the victors for a very huge amount, very difficult to pay off

Others: Germany is forced to accept its responsibility in the war. The League

of Nations is established but Germany is excluded Germans signed the Treaty under protest. The Versailles Treaty was used by Adolf Hitler to get into power and led to the Second World War.

Explain the stock market crash of 1929:

In October 1929 the stock market crashed, triggering a worldwide depression. Business firms closed their doors, factories shut down and banks failed. Many Americans was unemployed. Even banks invested their deposits in the stock market. October –black Thursday- panic took place in the morning hours, share prices plummeted and many people went bankrupt. The conservative government of the US thought that the market would balance by itself and that the crisis would not be long, but they were mistaken.

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