Sun Source

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Core: Sol is the area where nuclear fusion occurs due to high temperature, ie, the power generator of the Sun

Radiative Zone: particles that carry energy (photons) trying to escape abroad in a trip that can last 100,000 years because these photons are continuously absorbed and re-issued in a separate address to which they were.

Convective zone: This zone is the phenomenon of convection, ie, columns of hot gas rise to the surface, they cool and descend again.

Photosphere, is a thin layer, about 300 km, which is part of the Sun that we see the surface. From here radiate light and heat into space. The temperature is about 5,000 ° C. In the photosphere appear dark spots and bright faculae which are regions around the spots, with a higher than normal temperature of the photosphere and are related to the Sun's magnetic fields

Chromosphere: it can only be viewed in the totality of a solar eclipse is red, very low density and high temperature, half a million degrees. This consists of rarefied gases and in it there are very strong magnetic fields.

Corona: A layer of large area, high temperatures and very low density. It consists of rarefied gases and gigantic magnetic fields that vary in shape from hour to hour. This layer is breathtaking view of totality during a solar eclipse

Sunspots: Sunspots are known as dark central umbra surrounded by a lighter region called the penumbra. Sunspots are dark because they are cooler than the surrounding photosphere.

The spots are the location of strong magnetic fields. The reason why sunspots are cooler is not yet understood, but one possibility is that the magnetic field in the spots allows convection beneath them.

Sunspots usually grow and last from several days to several months. The observations of sunspots showed first that the sun rotates in a period of 27 days (as seen from Earth).

The number of sunspots on the Sun is not constant and change over a period of 11 years known as the solar cycle. Solar activity is directly related to this cycle.

Solar prominence: The solar prominences are huge jets of hot gas expelled from the Sun's surface, extending to many thousands of miles. The largest flares can last several months.

The Sun's magnetic field diverts some of the lumps that form and a giant bow. Occur in the chromosphere is about 100,000 degrees.

The bumps are spectacular phenomena. They appear in the limb of the Sun and clouds billowing high into the atmosphere and lower crown and consist of clouds of material at a lower temperature and higher density than its surroundings.

Temperatures in the central part is approximately one hundredth of the temperature of the corona, while its density is about 100 times that of the ambient corona. Therefore, the gas pressure inside a bump is approximately equal to that of its surroundings.

The solar wind: The solar wind is a stream of charged particles, mainly protons and electrons escaping from the Sun's outer atmosphere at high speed and penetrate the solar system.

Some of these charged particles trapped in Earth's magnetic field spiraling along the lines of force from one to another magnetic pole. The northern and southern lights are the result of the interactions of these particles with air molecules.

The solar wind speed is about 400 kilometers per second near the orbit of the Earth. The point where the solar wind is coming from other stars is called the heliopause, and is the theoretical limit of the Solar System. Encuantra about 100 AU from the Sun The space within the boundary of the heliopause containing the Sun and the solar system is called the heliosphere.


The Earth was formed about 4,650 million years, along with the entire solar system. Although the oldest rocks on Earth are no more than 4,000 million years, meteorites, which correspond geologically to the Earth's core, give dates of about 4,500 million years, and crystallization of the core and the precursor bodies of meteorites are believed to occur at the same time, some 150 million years after Earth formed and the Solar System.

After condensed from cosmic dust and gas by gravitational attraction, the Earth was nearly homogeneous and quite cold. But the continued contraction of materials and the radioactivity of some of the heavier elements had to be heated.

Then she began to melt under the influence of gravity, causing the differentiation between crust, mantle and core, with the lighter silicates moving upwards to form the crust and mantle and the heavier elements, especially iron and nickel, falling toward the center of the earth to form the nucleus.

At the same time, the eruption of volcanoes, led to the departure of volatile gases and vapors and light. Some were trapped by Earth's gravity and formed the early atmosphere, while the condensed water vapor formed the first oceans.

Terrestrial magnetism means that the Earth behaves like a huge magnet. The English physicist William Gilbert was the first who said in 1600, although the effects of terrestrial magnetism had been used much earlier in primitive compasses.

The Earth is surrounded by a strong magnetic field, as if the planet had a huge magnet inside South Pole which is close to the North Pole and vice versa. In parallel with the geographic poles, the Earth's magnetic poles are called magnetic north pole and south magnetic pole, though its real magnetism is opposite to that indicated by their names.

The magnetic north pole now stands near the west coast of Bathurst Island in the Northwest Territories in Canada. The south magnetic pole is at the end of the Antarctic continent in Terre Adélie.

The positions of the magnetic poles are not constant and showed notable changes from year to year. Variations in the Earth's magnetic field include a shift in the direction of the field caused by the displacement of the poles. This is a periodic variation that repeats every 960 years. There is also a smaller annual variation.

Structure of the Earth: From outside to inside the Earth can be divided into five parts:

Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding the planet's solid body. It has a thickness of more than 1,100 km, but half its mass is concentrated in the lowest 5.6 km.

Hydrosphere: It consists mainly of oceans, but in the strict sense includes all water surfaces in the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers and groundwater. The average depth of the oceans is 3,794 m, more than five times the average height of continents.

Lithosphere, consisting mainly of the earth's crust, extends to 100 km deep.The rocks of the lithosphere has an average density of 2.7 times that of water and are composed almost entirely of 11 elements, which together comprise 99.5% of its mass. The most abundant is oxygen, followed by silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, titanium, hydrogen and phosphorus. In addition, there are other 11 items at less than 0.1 carbon, manganese, sulfur, barium, chlorine, chromium, fluorine, zirconium, nickel, strontium and vanadium. The elements are present in the lithosphere almost entirely in the form of compounds in its free state.

The lithosphere comprises two layers, the crust and upper mantle, which are divided into about a dozen rigid plates. The upper mantle is separated from the cortex by a seismic discontinuity, the discontinuity of Mohorovicic, and the lower mantle by a weak area known as the asthenosphere. The plastic and partially molten rocks in the asthenosphere, 100 km thick, allowing the continents move around the earth's surface and oceans open and close.

Manto: It extends from the base of the crust to a depth of about 2,900 km. Except in the area known as the asthenosphere, is solid and its density, which increases with depth, ranging from 3.3 to 6. The upper mantle is composed of iron and magnesium silicates such as olivine and bottom of a mixed oxide of magnesium, iron and silicon.

Core: Has an outer layer of about 2,225 km thick with an average relative density of 10. This layer is probably rigid outer surface has depressions and peaks. By contrast, the inner core, whose radius is about 1,275 km, is solid. Both core layers are composed of iron with a small percentage of nickel and other elements. The inner core temperatures can reach 6,650 ° C and its average density is 13.

The inner core radiates intense heat continuously outward through the various concentric layers that form the solid portion of the planet. The source of this heat is the energy released by the decay of uranium and other radioactive elements. Convection currents within the mantle move the majority of Earth's thermal energy to the surface.

Early Atmosphere: The mixture of gases that forms the air current has developed over 4,500 million years. The early atmosphere must be composed solely of volcanic emissions, ie, water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen, without a trace just oxygen.

To achieve the transformation they have had to develop a series of processes. One of them was condensation. Upon cooling, most of the water vapor condensed volcanic origin, leading to the ancient oceans. There were also chemical reactions. Part of carbon dioxide have reacted with crustal rocks to form carbonates, some of which dissolve in the new oceans.

Later, when primitive life evolved capable of photosynthesis started producing oxygen. Makes about 570 million years, the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans increased enough to allow the existence of marine life. Later, some 400 million years ago, the atmosphere contained enough oxygen to allow the evolution of terrestrial animals able to breathe air.

Structure The atmosphere is divided into several layers:

The troposphere reaches an upper (tropopause) located 9 km in height at the poles and 18 km in Ecuador. It produces significant vertical and horizontal movements of air masses (winds) and there is relative abundance of water. Is the area of clouds and weather: rain, wind, temperature changes, ... and the layer of most interest to ecology. The temperature decreases as you go up, up to -70 º C in its upper limit.

The stratosphere begins at the tropopause and reaches an upper limit (stratopause), 50 km in altitude. The temperature change trend and is building up to be about 0 º C in the stratopause. Almost no movement of air in the vertical direction, but horizontal winds frequently reach up to 200 km / h, making it easy for any substance that reaches the stratosphere is disseminated across the globe quickly. For example, this is the case with CFCs that destroy ozone. In this part of the atmosphere, between 30 and 50 kilometers, is ozone important because it absorbs harmful shortwave radiation.

The mesosphere, which extends between 50 and 80 km in height, contains only about 0.1% of the total mass of Lair. It is important for the ionization and chemical reactions that occur in it. The decrease in temperature combined with low air density in the mesosphere determine the formation of turbulence and atmospheric waves operating at spatial and temporal scales very large. The mesosphere is the region where the spacecraft returning to Earth they begin to feel the wind structure of substance, and not just the air brake.

The ionosphere extends from an altitude of 80 km above Earth's surface up to 640 km or more. At these distances, the air is thin in the extreme. When the particles in the atmosphere undergo ionization by ultraviolet radiation, tend to remain ionized because of the minimal collisions that occur between the ions. The ionosphere has a great influence on the propagation of radio signals. A portion of the energy radiated by a transmitter to the ionosphere is absorbed by the ionized air and the other is refracted, or deflected back into the Earth's surface. The latter effect allows the reception of radio signals at distances much greater than would be possible with waves traveling through the Earth's surface.

The region that lies beyond the ionosphere is called the exosphere and extends to 9,600 km, which is the outer limit of the atmosphere. Extends beyond the magnetosphere, the space around Earth where the planet's magnetic field dominates the interplanetary magnetic field.

Origin of sea salt: From the volcanic chains located on the ocean floor lavas emerge with many of the components of sea water: chlorine, sodium, bromine, iodine, carbon and nitrogen, that are gradually turning into sales. In addition, the rivers carry the salts and minerals found in their journey across continents. In the oceans, the strong radiation from the sun evaporates the water causing salts to accumulate over time. In seawater, together with a large number of chemical elements are dissolved gases and nutrients to ocean life.

The overall salinity of the oceans is 35 parts per 1000 (35/000). This means that at 1,000 grams (1 kilo) of sea water, 35 grams correspond to sales.

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