COGNITIVE:1-Intelligence:ur ability to solve prblms;ur ability to acq knwdg & assmilte It.2vws:Trditl Approach:IQ Tests:measuring (meta-) linguistic and logico-mathematical ability, Calculating a ‘g’ factor, but nt communicate abilities; recent App: Theory of multiple-intelligences (Gardner): Intraprsonl (u Undrstand urslf, u can control it & being aware f hw u feel & So sth about it) & Interprsnal (u are good at commnicating, understnding situations): Verbal-linguistic;mathematical-logical;musical;existential;visual-spatial;naturalist; Interprsnal; intraprsnal;bodily/kinesthetic. Cognitive abilities wth Only weak correlation btw them (u can be very good at 1 & very Bad at others) Intelligence is no 1 single ability.Theory says that intelligence dsn’t seem to b determinant. MIT & its critics:MIT Is wrong: the ‘g’ factor prevails: It’s all a matter f Hierarchies. W all hv a gneral factor that would b higher, medium or Lower. No matter the differences btw them. General tendency btw all The abilities. Individual intelligence is what prevails. -Isn’t ‘g’ Just a cumulative cognitive index?MIT theory lacks empirical support: no firm research hs validated its practical Applications in schools.- Bt qualitative studies prove its success in Schools.(u adapt the way u teach to their abilities (this can b a Failure. If u simplify things u deceive them. Get out of the Comfort-zone= no effort).People in favor f multiple intelligences:It Can help to grade teaching difficulty -Measuring intelligence:“…the Kind f ability measured by traditional IQ tests may b a strong Predictor when it comes to learning that involves language analysis & Rule learning (grammar, voc, reading…) but may play a less Important role outside the classroom or in classrooms whre the Instruction focuses more on communication & interaction.”If you take a +general view of intelligence this may benefit SLA.Intelligence is clearly related to lg methodology.-Multiple intelligences:linguistic intelligence=Lg attitude being our natural ability,our knack,for learning lgs,which people possess to a varying degree. 2- APTITUDE IN SLA: 2vws: Carroll: aptitude is unmodifiable, an innate capacity: not trainable & Related only to acquisition (nt learning); aptitude is Natural ability bt can b developed through adequate instruction Because it’s partly based on expertise f info processing (relevant In both learnng & acq). WHY MEASURING APTITUDE? (aim: Adapting the instruction wth the specific needs f lrners teaching Methods)Bcse w want to use it as a predictor for the potential of a Person as a 2º lrner. We want to know if w are born with the ability To b sccssful.Predictive Value of original tests fr traditional lrning system. 90s on: to find The link btwn aptitude profiles (good ss need not be strong in all Components) & tpes f instruction (formal/commnicative/deductive/inductive):adapts teaching method. MLAT (Modern Language Aptitude Test)-LLAMA: MLAT:1[input]PHONETIC CODING ABILITY: Ability to make a link btw sound & symbl, & to code foreign Sounds & distinguish them from others.2[processing]GRAMMATICAL SENSITIVITY: Ability to segment input & recognize grammtical functions in Words in sentences. 3.[processing] INDUCTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING ABILITY: Ability to identify patterns of form-meaning from input (“noticing” & “inferring”/”guessing”) using reasoning Abilities.4.[Memory] ROTE LEARNING ABILITY: ur Memory. Ability to store & retrieve linguistic items. Memory Capacity; good capacity for rote; descontextualized learning f Sound-meaning associations. Criticism:Based On outdated notions f rote memory & lg aptitude (vs dynamic Modes) (on w measure it the some at all stages? In Different stages the cognitive effort u hv t do is different.(diff stages for diff points).Dpending on ur age u will use some cognitive abilities or others. Fr Instance, if u acq the SL when u are 3 / 4 u’ll do it implicitly (unconscious). The cognitive ability u’ll use the + is the memory. Reasoning or Logical/thinking abilities will b the mst important when U learn a SL being an adult.High Predictive value, bt for SLA rate in formal instruction settings (G-T & ALM traditions) vs. Present interest in potential t achve Highest levels of ultimate attainment & impact f different Learnng cnditions. W Know that aptitude is modifiable.*Measure f a good memory/ grammar – Xplain the input that ur. Aptitude complex hypothesis:is a multi-dimnsionl cncept in the sense that today w can recgnize diffrent cognitive abilities that cn b studied or perceived in a hierarchical way. Aptitude as a multi-dynamical concept, diffrnt dimnsions, cgnitive ablties.For instance,being a good lg learner means,for examp.,noticing the gap(notice our problems)by comparing our own speech(utterance) w/ feedbackyou receive from another person & trying to fill that gap.Your ability:your own problems.Having lg aptitude means being good at noticing (ur) gaps (output) (gd lg lrnrs)Usually u notice the gap by comparing your own utterances and your interlocutor will improve/complete what you guess (feedback).By completing these gaps you improve your own competence. For you to be able to notice that people who is good at task switchings are good at translation & interpretation.All this means that very good at lg may means be good at same aspects & bad at others.You need implicit learning, reasoning abilities, memory and processing speech.Even the notions of language aptitude cannot be taken as a single concept.