Samuel Jhonson1755: Dictionary of the english langua Standarization of meaning of words and English spelling
Robert lowth1972: Short Introduction English Grammar Prescribed what correct grammar should be, latin knowledge
Karl Plotz : Gramar translation method Learning language using examples sentences, two grammar rules a list of vocabulary, translate.
Berlitz method Direct Method Learning focus on oral language, listening and speaking. Imitation of Acquisition need proficient teachers. /delete L1 in classes.
Michael West Reading method Learn through reading Tests, frequent words decrease complexity in tests
Army methodWWII (B) Audiolingualism Based on theory of habits, focussed on sentence patterns, learn through drills.
CLT Learner’s message and fluency rather their grammatical accuracy
(CLT) Chomsky 1959 Innatism Abstract rules of language are Innate, children test language in practice. Children learn language spontaneously and speak creatively
(CLT) Hymes 1972 Communicative competence Use grammar correctly in different contexts. Function rather than form.
(CLT) Halliday1973 Sysyemic Functional Grammar Language function in society not only related to the learner.
(CLT) Van Ek1976 council of Europe project L2 learners needs
(CLT)Krashen1982 monitor theory Unconsciously acquired- comprehensible input- learners emotional state affect acquisition
Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Learners could work on individual computers truly at their own pace
Corpora : To analyse large databases of language
Vygotsky XX: Sociocultural theory Language as a social construct The child is an active learner in a world full of other people.
ZDP = Scaffolding
Labov 1970 SC Social factors influencing L1
Tarone 1979 SC Social factors influencing L2
Concepts SC Socioliguistics= Social factors in languag
Pragmatics= context of language in use
XX Phsycolinguistic Mind extract recurrent patterns
Pavlov XX Classical conditioning Conditioning actions trough experience
Skinner Operant conditioning Changes in behaviour are the result of an individual´s response to events.”
Watson 1913 Behaviourism
littile albert Observable events rather than mental states should be studied
Lennerberg 1967 Critical period Hypothesis There is a critical period for language learning, not agreement in age but not after puberty (genie case)
Piaget 1896-1980 Children’s Cognitive Development Language can be used to represent knowledge that children have acquired through physical interaction with the environment.
Bloom 1956 Cognitive Learning Theory
Krashen Affective factors Classroom
Affective factors How L Feels
Lado 1957 Transfer = Crosslinguistic influence Use sounds, structures, expressions from the L1 performing L2, Positive and Negative.
Selinker 1972 Interlanguage An in-between system used in L2 acquisition, contains aspects of the L1 & L2 but have its own rules