An in-between system used in the L2 acquisition process that certainly contains aspects of the L1 and L2, but which is an inherently variable system with rules of its own

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Samuel Jhonson1755: Dictionary of the english langua   Standarization of meaning of words and English spelling

Robert lowth1972: Short Introduction English Grammar      Prescribed what correct grammar should be, latin knowledge

Karl Plotz : Gramar translation method Learning language using examples sentences, two grammar rules a list of vocabulary, translate.

Berlitz method Direct Method  Learning focus on oral language, listening and speaking. Imitation of Acquisition need proficient teachers. /delete L1 in classes.

Michael West    Reading method              Learn through reading Tests, frequent words decrease complexity in tests

Army methodWWII (B)  Audiolingualism  Based on theory of habits, focussed on sentence patterns, learn through drills.

CLT  Learner’s message and fluency rather their grammatical accuracy

(CLT) Chomsky 1959   Innatism   Abstract rules of language are Innate, children test language in practice. Children learn language spontaneously and speak creatively

(CLT) Hymes 1972      Communicative competence     Use grammar correctly in different contexts. Function rather than form.

(CLT) Halliday1973      Sysyemic Functional Grammar  Language function in  society not only related to the learner.

(CLT) Van Ek1976      council of Europe project             L2 learners needs

(CLT)Krashen1982 monitor theory Unconsciously acquired- comprehensible input- learners emotional state affect acquisition

Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)                   Learners could work on individual computers truly at their own pace


Corpora : To analyse large databases of language

Vygotsky XX:     Sociocultural theory       Language as a social construct The child is an active learner in a world full of other people.

ZDP = Scaffolding

Labov 1970         SC           Social factors influencing  L1

Tarone 1979       SC           Social factors influencing L2

Concepts            SC           Socioliguistics= Social factors in languag

Pragmatics= context of language in use

XX Phsycolinguistic         Mind extract recurrent patterns

Pavlov  XX           Classical conditioning     Conditioning actions trough experience   

Skinner Operant conditioning Changes in behaviour are the result of an individual´s response to events.”

Watson 1913     Behaviourism

littile albert        Observable events rather than mental states should be studied

Lennerberg 1967              Critical period Hypothesis           There is a critical period for language learning, not agreement in age but not after puberty (genie case)

Piaget 1896-1980 Children’s Cognitive Development     Language can be used to represent knowledge that children have acquired through physical interaction with the environment.

Bloom 1956        Cognitive Learning Theory          

Krashen               Affective factors              Classroom

Affective factors How L Feels

Lado 1957           Transfer = Crosslinguistic influence         Use sounds, structures, expressions from the L1 performing L2, Positive and Negative.

Selinker  1972    Interlanguage   An in-between system used in L2 acquisition, contains aspects of the L1 & L2 but have its own rules

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