The end of great invasions made more security and then technical innovations in agriculture were introduced these resulted in agricultural growth which made an increase in land and in productivity which meant an improvement in diet/health which caused population growth. And as there e¡was agricultural surplus the revival of trade happened. Burghs began to appear (new neighbourhoods).
Often grew around a castle and were located next to major roads. They were located in areas that could provide for people’s needs. The cities were protected by walls that extended as the city grew. Inside the walls there was a jumble of streets. Usually there was a large square in the centre surrounded by the town hall/marketplace/cathedral. People lived in neighbourhoods depending on their origin religion or trade.The poor lived outside the walls. Streets were narrow/dirty/unpaved. Poor hygiene led to a spread of diseases.
It is difficult to become a master, an artisan starts as an apprentice at a young age. Only artisans with the money to establish themselves and pass the exam become master (with the permission of the guild). Artisans couldn’t work in the city without permission, all artisans worked the same hours and with the same kind of tools. Thursday is the marker day in the city. Peasants go to the market to sell their agriculture/livestock products.
From the 12th century travelling was safer and new roads were built between cities. Traders met at the great fairs (large markets). Some cities allocated special days for these fairs. Maritime trade became more important than land trade due to the increased capacity and speed of ships. The first major route opened in the Mediterranean, they imported luxury goods, exported textiles, weapons and tools.