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**-**A aeroplane has a landing mass of 53 000kg. The range of safe CG positions, as determined from the appropriate graph in the loading manual, is : **Forward limit 7.8% MAC aft limit 27.0% MAC**

-A flight benefits from a strong tail wind which was not forecast. On arrival at destination a straight in approach and immediate landing clearance is given. The landing mass will be higher than planned and: **the landing distance required will be longer.**

**-**A flight has been made from London to Valencia carrying minimum fuel and maximum traffic load. On the return flight the fuel tanks in the aeroplane are to be filled to capacity with a total fuel load of 20100 litres at a fuel density of 0.79 kg/l. The following are the aeroplane's structural limits: -Maximum Ramp Mass: 69 900 kg -Maximum Take Off Mass: 69 300 kg -Maximum Landing Mass: 58 900 kg -Maximum Zero Fuel Mass: 52 740 kg The performance limited take off mass at Valencia is 67 330 kg. The landing mass at London is not performance limited. Dry Operating Mass: 34 930 kg Trip Fuel (Valencia to London): 5 990 kg Taxi fuel: 250 kg The maximum traffic load that can be carried from Valencia will be: **14 331 kg**

**-**A jet aeroplane, with the geometrical characteristics shown in the appendix, has a take-off weight (W) of 460 000 N and a centre of gravity (point G on annex) located at 15.40 m from the zero reference point. At the last moment the station manager has 12 000 N of freight added in the forward compartment at 10 m from the zero reference point. The final location of the centre of gravity, calculated in percentage of mean aerodynamic chord AB (from point A), is equal to: **27.5 %.**

**-**A jet transport has the following structural limits: -Maximum Ramp Mass: 63 060 kg -Maximum Take Off Mass: 62 800 kg -Maximum Landing Mass: 54 900 kg -Maximum Zero Fuel Mass: 51 300 kg The aeroplane's fuel is loaded accordance with the following requirements: -Taxi fuel: 400 kg -Trip fuel: 8400 kg -Contingency & final reserve fuel: 1800 kg -Alternate fuel: 1100 kg If the Dry Operating Mass is 34930 kg, determine the maximum traffic load that can be carried on the flight if departure and landing airfields are not performance limited: **16 370 kg**

**-**A load placed aft of the datum: **Has a positive arm and therefore generates a positive moment**

**-**A load placed forward of the datum: **Has a negative arm and therefore generates a negative moment**

**-**A location in the aircraft which is identified by a number designating its distance from the datum is known as: **Station.**

**-**A mass of 500 kg is loaded at a station which is located 10 metres behind the present Centre of Gravity and 16 metres behind the datum. (Assume: g=10 m/sec squared). The moment for that mass used in the loading manifest is : **80000 Nm**

**-**A pallet having a freight platform which measures 200 cm x 250 cm has a total mass of 300 kg. The pallet is carried on two ground supports each measuring 20 cm x 200 cm. Using the loading manual for the transport aeroplane, calculate how much mass may be added to, or must be off loaded from, the pallet in order for the load intensity to match the maximum permitted distribution load intensity for lower deck forward cargo compartment: **285.5 kg may be added.**

**-**A revenue flight is planned for the transport aeroplane. Take-off mass is not airfield limited. The following data applies: Dry Operating Mass 34930 kg, Performance limited landing mass 55000 kg, Fuel on board at ramp -Taxi fuel 350 kg, Trip fuel 9730 kg, Contingency and final reserve fuel 1200 kg, Alternate fuel 1600 kg, Passengers on board 130, Standard mass for each passenger 84 kg, Baggage per passenger 14 kg. Traffic load - Maximum possible. Use the loading manual provided and the above data. Determine the maximum cargo load that may be carried without exceeding the limiting aeroplane landing mass: **4530 kg.**

**-**A revenue flight is to be made by a jet transport. The following are the aeroplane's structural limits: -Maximum Ramp Mass: 69 900 kg, -Maximum Take Off Mass: 69 300 kg, Maximum Landing Mass: 58 900 kg, Maximum Zero Fuel Mass: 52 740 kg. The performance limited take off mass is 67 450kg and the performance limited landing mass is 55 470 kg. Dry Operating Mass: 34 900 kg. Trip Fuel: 6 200 kg. Taxi Fuel: 250 kg. Contingency & final reserve fuel:1 300 kg. Alternate Fuel: 1 100 kg. The maximum traffic load that can be carried is: **17 840 kg**

**-**A revenue flight is to be made by a jet transport. The following are the aeroplane's structural limits: -Maximum Ramp Mass: 69 900 kg, -Maximum Take Off Mass: 69 300 kg, Maximum Landing Mass: 58 900 kg, Maximum Zero Fuel Mass: 52 740 kg. Take Off and Landing mass are not performance limited. Dry Operating Mass: 34 930 kg Trip Fuel: 11 500 kg Taxi Fuel: 250 kg Contingency & final reserve fuel: 1 450 kg Alternate Fuel: 1 350 kg The maximum traffic load that can be carried is: **17 810 kg**

**-**A revenue flight is to be made by a jet transport. The following are the aeroplane's structural limits: -Maximum Ramp Mass: 69 900 kg, -Maximum Take Off Mass: 69 300 kg, Maximum Landing Mass: 58 900 kg, Maximum Zero Fuel Mass: 52 740 kg Take Off and Landing mass are not performance limited. Dry Operating Mass: 34 900 kg Trip Fuel: 11 800 kg Taxi Fuel: 500 kg Contingency & final reserve fuel: 1 600 kg Alternate Fuel:1 900 kg The maximum traffic load that can be carried is: **17 840 kg**

**-**Allowed traffic load is the difference between : **allowed take off mass and operating mass**

**-**Allowed traffic load is the difference between: **allowed take off mass and operating mass.**

**-**An additional baggage container is loaded into the aft cargo compartment but is not entered into the load and trim sheet. The aeroplane will be heavier than expected and calculated take-off safety speeds: **will give reduced safety margins.**

**-**An aeroplane has a mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) of 134.5 inches. The leading edge of this chord is at a distance of 625.6 inches aft of the datum. Define the location of the centre of gravity of the aeroplane in terms of percentage MAC if the mass of the aeroplane is acting vertically through a balance arm located 650 inches aft of the datum.**18,1%**

**-**An aeroplane is carrying a traffic load of 10320 kg. Complete the necessary sections of the attached appendix and determine which of the answers given below represents the maximum increase in the traffic load: **1830 kg**

**-**An aeroplane is performance limited to a landing mass of 54230 kg. The Dry Operating Mass is 35000 kg and the zero fuel mass is 52080 kg. If the take-off mass is 64280 kg the useful load is: **29280 kg.**

**-**An aeroplane is to depart from an airfield at a take-off mass of 302550 kg. Fuel on board at take-off (including contingency and alternate of 19450 kg) is 121450 kg. The Dry Operating Mass is 161450 kg. The useful load will be: **141100 kg**

**-**An aeroplane is to depart from an airfield where the performance limited take-off mass is 89200 kg. Certificated maximum masses are as follows: Ramp (taxi) mass- 89930 kg, Maximum Take-off mass- 89430 kg, MaximumLanding mass- 71520 kg, Actual Zero fuel mass- 62050 kg, Fuel on board at ramp: Taxi fuel- 600 kg, Trip fuel- 17830 kg, Contingency, final reserve and alternate -9030 kg. If the Dry Operating Mass is 40970 kg the traffic load that can be carried on this flight is: **21080 kg**

**-**An aeroplane is weighed and the following recordings are made: nose wheel assembly scale 5330 kg left main wheel assembly scale 12370 kg right main wheel assembly scale 12480 kg If the 'operational items' amount to a mass of 1780 kg with a crew mass of 545 kg, the empty mass, as entered in the weight schedule, is: **30180 kg**

**-**An aeroplane must be re-weighed at certain intervals. Where an operator uses 'fleet masses' and provided that changes have been correctly documented, this interval is: **9 years for each aeroplane.**

**-**An aeroplane with a two wheel nose gear and four main wheels rests on the ground with a single nose wheel load of 500 kg and a single main wheel load of 6000 kg. The distance between the nose wheels and the main wheels is 10 meter. How far is the centre of gravity in front of the main wheels?**40 cm.**

**-**An aeroplane with a two wheel nose gear and four main wheels rests on the ground with a single nose wheel load of 500 kg and a single main wheel load of 6000 kg. The distance between the nose wheels and the main wheels is 10 meter. How far is the centre of gravity in front of the main wheels?**40 cm.**

**-**An aeroplane with a two wheel nose gear and four main wheels rests on the ground with a single nose wheel load of 725 kg and a single main wheel load of 6000 kg. The distance between the nose wheels and the main wheels is 10 meters. How far is the centre of gravity in front of the main wheels?**57 cm.**

**-**An aeroplane, which is scheduled to fly an oceanic sector, is due to depart from a high altitude airport in the tropics at 1400 local time. The airport has an exceptionally long runway. Which of the following is most likely to be the limiting factor(s) in determining the take - off mass ? **altitude and temperature of the departure airfield.**

**-**An aeroplane, which is scheduled to fly an oceanic sector, is due to depart from a high altitude airport in the tropics at 1400 local time. The airport has an exceptionally long runway. Which of the following is most likely to be the limiting factor(s) in determining the take - off mass ? **altitude and temperature of the departure airfield.**

**-**An aeroplane, whose specific data is shown in the annex, has a planned take-off mass of 200 000 kg, with its centre of gravity (C.G.) located at 15.38 m rearward of the reference point, representing a C.G. location at 30 % MAC (Mean Aerodynamic Cord). The current cargo load distribution is: front cargo: 6 500 kg; rear cargo: 4 000 kg. For performance purposes, the captain decides to reset the value of the centre of gravity location to 33 % MAC. The front and rear cargo compartments are located at a distance of 15 m and 25 m from the reference point respectively. After the transfer operation, the new cargo load distribution is: **front cargo: 3 740 kg; rear cargo: 6 760 kg**

**-**An aeroplane's weighing schedule indicates that the empty mass is 57320 kg. The nominal Dry Operating Mass is 60120 kg and the Maximum Zero Fuel Mass is given as 72100 kg. Which of the following is a correct statement in relation to this aeroplane? **operational items have a mass of 2800 kg and the maximum traffic load for this aeroplane is 11980 kg.**

**-**An aircraft basic empty mass is 3000 kg. The maximum take-off, landing, and zero-fuel mass are identical, at 5200 kg. Ramp fuel is 650 kg, the taxi fuel is 50 kg. The maximum traffic load is:**1 600 kg**

**-**An aircraft has its centre of gravity located 7 metres from the datum line and it has a weight of 49000 N. The moment about the datum is: **343 000 Nm.**

**-**An aircraft is weighed prior to entry into service. Who is responsible for deriving the Dry Operational Mass from the weighed mass by the addition of the 'operational items' ?**The Operator.**

**-**An aircraft may be weighed: **in an enclosed, non-air conditioned, hangar.**

**-**Assume: Aircraft actual mass: 4750 kg Centre of gravity at station: 115.8 What will be the new position of the centre of gravity if 100 kg is moved from the station 30 to station 120? **Station 117.69**

**-**Assuming gross mass, altitude and airspeed remain unchanged, movement of the centre of gravity from the forward to the aft limit will cause: **increased cruise range.**

**-**At a given mass the CG position is at 15% MAC. If the leading edge of MAC is at a position 625.6 inches aft of the datum and the MAC is given as 134.5 inches determine the position of the CG in relation to the datum: **645.78 inches aft of datum**

**-**At maximum certificated take-off mass an aeroplane departs from an airfield which is not limiting for either take-off or landing masses. During initial climb the number one engine suffers a contained disintegration. An emergency is declared and the aeroplane returns to departure airfield for an immediate landing. The most likely result of this action will be: **a high threshold speed and possible undercarriage or other structural failure.**

**-**At the flight preparation stage, the following parameters in particular are available for determining the mass of the aircraft: 1- Dry operating mass 2- Operating mass Which statement is correct: **The dry operating mass includes fixed equipment needed to carry out a specific flight.**

**-**Basic Empty Mass is: **a component of Dry Operating Mass.**

**-**By adding to the basic empty mass the following fixed necessary equipment for a specific flight (catering, safety and rescue equipment, fly away kit, crew), we get: **Dry operating mass**

**-**Calculate the centre of gravity in % MAC (mean aerodynamic chord) with following data: Distance datum - centre of gravity: 12.53 m Distance datum - leading edge: 9.63 m Length of MAC: 8 m: **36.3 % MAC**

**-**Chord Length 1m C of G 25% MAC A/C Mass 2200 KGs Fwd hold - 0.5 m Aft hold +2.5 m What weight needs to be moved from the forward hold to the aft hold to achieve 40% MAC? **110kg**

**-**Comparing a forward CG position with an aft one, the forward cg position will cause a: **decrease in range.**

**-**Considering only structural limitations, on long distance flights (at the aeroplane's maximum range), the traffic load is normally limited by: **The maximum take-off mass.**

**-**Considering only structural limitations, on very short legs with minimum take-off fuel, the traffic load is limited by: **Maximum zero fuel mass**

**-**Considering only structural limitations, on very short legs with minimum take-off fuel, the traffic load is normally limited by: **Maximum zero fuel mass.**

**-**Conversion of fuel volume to mass: **may be done by using standard fuel density values as specified in the Operations Manual, if the actual fuel density is not known.**

**-**Determine the Dry Operating Index for a DOM of 35,000kg and a %MAC of 14%: **40**

**-**Determine the Landing Mass for the following single engine aeroplane. Given: Standard Empty Mass :1764 lbs Optional Equipment : 35 lbs Pilot + Front seat passenger : 300 lbs Cargo Mass : 350 lbs Ramp Fuel = Block Fuel : 60 Gal. Trip Fuel : 35 Gal. Taxi Fuel 1.7 Gal. Fuel density: 6 lbs/Gal Determine the expected landing mass: **2589 lbs**

**-**Determine the Zero Fuel Mass for the following single engine aeroplane. Given : Standard Empty Mass : 1764 lbs Pilot + Front seat passenger : 300 lbs Cargo Mass : 350 lbs Ramp Fuel = Block Fuel : 60 Gal. Trip Fuel : 35 Gal. Fuel density : 6 lbs/Gal: **2414 lbs**

**-**Dry Operating Mass is the mass of the aircraft less: **usable fuel and traffic load.**

**-**During a violent avoidance manoeuvre, a light twin aircraft, certified to FAR 23 requirements was subjected to an instantaneous load factor of 4.2. The Flight Manual specifies that the aircraft is certified in the normal category for a load factor of -1.9 +3.8. Considering the certification requirements and taking into account that the manufacturer of the twin did not include, during its conception, a supplementary margin in the flight envelope, it might be possible to observe; **a permanent deformation of the structure**

**-**During take-off you notice that, for a given elevator input, the aeroplane rotates much more rapidly than expected. This is an indication that: **the centre of gravity may be towards the aft limit.**

**-**For a given configuration, the stall speed of an aeroplane will be highest when loaded: **to the maximum allowable mass with the most forward CG.**

**-**For a particular aeroplane, the structural maximum mass without any fuel on board, other than unusable quantities, is: **a fixed value which is stated in the Aeroplane Operating Manual.**

**-**For the medium range transport aeroplane, from the loading manual, determine the maximum total volume of fuel which can be loaded into the main wing tanks. (Fuel density value 0.78kg/l): **11349 litres**

**-**For the purpose of aeroplane mass and balance calculations, the datum point is defined as: **a fixed point from which all balance arms are measured. It may be located anywhere on the aeroplane's longitudinal axis or on the extensions to that axis.**

**-**For the purpose of completing the Mass and Balance documentation, the Traffic Load is considered to be equal to the Take-off Mass: **less the Operating Mass.**

**-**For the purpose of completing the Mass and Balance documentation, the Operating Mass is considered to be Dry Operating Mass plus: **Take-off Fuel Mass.**

**-**For the purpose of completing the Mass and Balance documentation, the Dry Operating Mass is defined as: **The total mass of the aircraft ready for a specific type of operation excluding all usable fuel and traffic load.**

**-**For the transport aeroplane the moment (balance) arm (B.A.) for the forward hold centroid is: **367.9 inches.**

**-**From the data contained in the attached appendix, the maximum allowable take - off mass and traffic load is respectively : **61600 kg and 12150 kg**

**-**From the data given at the appendix and assuming a fuel index shift of - 5.7 from the ZFM loaded index, determine which of the following is the correct value (percentage MAC) for the position of the centre of gravity at Take Off Mass: **18 %**

**-**From the loading manual for the jet transport aeroplane, the maximum floor loading intensity for the aft cargo compartment is : **68 kg per square foot**.

-From the loading manual for the transport aeroplane, the aft cargo compartment has a maximum total load of : **4187 kg**

**-**From the Loading Manual for the transport aeroplane, the maximum load that can be carried in that section of the aft cargo compartment which has a balance arm centroid at : **835.5 inches is 3062 kg.**

**-**Fuel loaded onto an aeroplane is 15400 kg but is erroneously entered into the load and trim sheet as 14500 kg. This error is not detected by the flight crew but they will notice that: **speed at un-stick will be higher than expected**

**-**Given an aeroplane with: Maximum Structural Landing Mass: 125000 kg Maximum Zero Fuel Mass: 108500 kg Maximum Structural Take-off Mass: 155000 kg Dry Operating Mass: 82000 kg Scheduled trip fuel is 17000 kg and the reserve fuel is 5000 kg. Assuming performance limitations are not restricting, the maximum permitted take-off mass and maximum traffic load are respectively: **130500 kg and 26500 kg**

**-**Given an aeroplane with: Maximum Structural Landing Mass: 68000 kg Maximum Zero Fuel Mass: 70200 kg Maximum Structural Take-off Mass: 78200 kg Dry Operating Mass : 48000 kg Scheduled trip fuel is 7000 kg and the reserve fuel is 2800 kg, Assuming performance limitations are not restricting, the maximum permitted take-off mass and maximum traffic load are respectively: **75000 kg and 17200 kg**

**-**Given are the following information at take-off. Details at reference Given that the flight time is 2 hours and the estimated fuel flow will be 1050 litres per hour and the average oil consumption will be 2.25 litres per hour. The specific density of fuel is 0.79 and the specific density of oil is 0.96. Calculate the landing centre of gravity: **61.28 cm aft of datum.**

**-**Given are:- Maximum structural take-off mass: 72 000 kg, - Maximum structural landing mass: 56 000 kg, - Maximum zero fuel mass: 48 000 kg, - Taxi fuel: 800 kg, - Trip fuel: 18 000 kg, - Contingency fuel: 900 kg, - Alternate fuel: 700 kg, - Final reserve fuel: 2 000 kg. Determine the actual take-off mass: **69 600 kg**

**-**Given that the total mass of an aeroplane is 112 000 kg with a centre of gravity position at 22.62m aft of the datum. The centre of gravity limits are between 18m and 22m. How much mass must be removed from the rear hold (30 m aft of the datum) to move the centre of gravity to the middle of the limits: **29 344 kg**

**-**Given that: - Maximum structural take-off mass: 146 000 kg, - Maximum structural landing mass: 93 900 kg, - Maximum zero fuel mass: 86 300 kg, - Trip fuel: 27 000 kg, - Taxi fuel: 1 000 kg, - Contingency fuel: 1350 kg, - Alternate fuel: 2650 kg, - Final reserve fuel: 3000 kg, Determine the actual take-off mass: **120 300 kg.**

**-**Given the following : - Maximum structural take-off mass 48 000 kg - Maximum structural landing mass: 44 000 kg - Maximum zero fuel mass: 36 000 kg -Taxi fuel: 600 kg -Contingency fuel: 900 kg -Alternate fuel: 800 kg -Final reserve fuel: 1 100 kg -Trip fuel: 9 000 kg. The actual TOM can never be higher than: **47 800 kg**

**-**Given the following data calculate the CG as a %MAC when 12000N of last minute cargo is added to a hold 10m from the datum. AUM 460000N, LEMac 14m from datum, MAC 4.6m, Current CG 15.4m from datum: **27.5%**

**-**Given the following data how much cargo must be moved from the forward hold to the aft hold to achieve a CG at 33% MAC? AUM 200000kg Forward Hold Cargo 6500kg Aft hold Cargo 4000kg Distance between holds 10m Current CG: 30%MAC MAC 4.6m: **2760kg**

**-**Given the following data: Distance from datum to centre of gravity 12.53 m Distance from datum to leading edge 9.63 m Length of MAC 8.00 m Calculate the Centre of Gravity in % MAC (mean aerodynamic chord): **36.3 % MAC**

**-**Given the following information, calculate the loaded centre of gravity (cg). Details at reference: **56.53 cm aft datum.**

**-**Given the information at take-off shown at the reference. Given that the flight time is 2 hours and the estimated fuel flow will be 1050 litres per hour and the average oil consumption will be 2.25 litres per hour. The specific density of fuel is 0.79. The specific density of the oil is 0.96 .The "Freight 2" will be dropped during flight within the scope of a rescue action. Calculate the CG position at landing: **24 cm aft of datum.**

**-**Given: - The take-off mass of an aircraft is 8470 kg. - Total fuel on board is 1600 kg including 450 kg reserve fuel and 29 kg of unusable fuel. - The traffic load is 770 kg. What is the Zero Fuel Mass? **6899 kg**

**-**Given: Actual mass 116 500 lbs, Original CG station 435.0, Compartment A station 285.5, Compartment B station 792.5. If 390 lbs of cargo is moved from compartment B (aft) to compartment A (forward), what is the station number of the new CG? **433.3**

**-**Given: Aeroplane mass = 36 000 kg Centre of gravity (cg) is located at station 17 m What is the effect on cg location if you move 20 passengers (total mass = 1 600 kg) from station 16 to station 23? **It moves aft by 0.31 m.**

**-**Given: Dry Operating Mass = 38 000 kg Maximum Structural Take-off Mass = 72 000 kg Maximum Landing Mass = 65 000 kg Maximum Zero Fuel Mass = 61 000 kg Trip Fuel = 8 000 kg Take-off Fuel = 10 300 kg The maximum allowed take-off mass and payload are respectively : **71 300 kg and 23 000 kg**

**-**Given: Dry Operating Mass: 4920 kg Zero Fuel Mass: 5740 kg Trip Fuel: 670 kg Take-Off Fuel: 1050 kg The Traffic Load is: **820 kg**

**-**Given: Dry Operating Mass: 5210 kg Zero Fuel Mass: 6230 kg Trip Fuel: 990 kg Take-Off Fuel: 1590 kg The Traffic Load is: **1020 kg**

**-**Given: Dry Operating Mass: 5320 kg Zero Fuel Mass: 6790 kg Trip Fuel: 770 kg Take-Off Fuel: 1310 kg The Traffic Load is: **1470 kg**

-Given: Dry Operating Mass= 29 800 kg, Maximum Take-Off Mass= 52 400 kg, Maximum Zero-Fuel Mass= 43 100 kg, Maximum Landing Mass= 46 700 kg, Trip fuel= 4 000 kg, Fuel quantity at brakes release= 8 000 kg. The maximum traffic load is: **12 900 kg**

**-**Given: Fuel volume: 3800 US Gallons Fuel density: 0.79 kg/l What is fuel mass? **11364 kg.**

**-**Given: Maximum structural take-off mass: 7400 kg Maximum structural landing mass: 7400 kg Zero Fuel Mass: 5990 kg Taxi Fuel: 15 kg Contingency Fuel:110 kg. Alternate Fuel: 275 kg. Final Reserve Fuel: 250 kg. Trip Fuel: 760 kg The expected Landing Mass at destination will be: **6625 kg**

**-**Given: Maximum structural take-off mass: 8350 kg Maximum structural landing mass: 8350 kg Zero Fuel Mass: 6210 kg Taxi Fuel: 10 kg Contingency Fuel:90 kg. Alternate Fuel: 300 kg. Final Reserve Fuel: 400 kg. Trip Fuel: 780 kg The expected Landing Mass at destination will be: **7000 kg**

**-**Given: Maximum structural take-off mass: 8600 kg Maximum structural landing mass: 8600 kg Zero Fuel Mass: 6500 kg Taxi Fuel: 15 kg Contingency fuel: 110 kg. Alternate fuel: 600 kg. Final Reserve Fuel: 130 kg. Trip Fuel: 970 kg. The expected Landing Mass at destination will be: **7340 kg**

**-**Given: Maximum structural take-off mass= 146 900 kg, Maximum structural landing mass= 93 800 kg, Maximum zero fuel mass= 86 400 kg, Trip fuel= 27 500 kg, Block fuel= 35 500 kg Engine starting and taxi fuel = 1 000 kg. The maximum take-off mass is equal to: **120 900 kg**

**-**Given: Total mass 2900 kg Centre of gravity (cg) location station: 115 Aft cg limit station: 116 The maximum mass that can be added at station 130 is: **207 kg.**

**-**Given: Total mass: 7500 kg, Centre of gravity (cg) location station: 80.5, Aft cg limit station: 79.5. How much cargo must be shifted from the aft cargo compartment at station 150 to the forward cargo compartment at station 30 in order to move the cg location to the aft limit? **62.5 kg.**

**-**Given: Zero Fuel Mass: 4770 kg Trip Fuel: 1040 kg Block Fuel: 1960 kg Taxi Fuel: 20 kg The actual Take-Off Mass is equal to: **6710 kg**

**-**Given: Zero Fuel Mass: 4920 kg Trip Fuel: 880 kg Block Fuel: 1330 kg Taxi Fuel: 25 kg The actual Take-Off Mass is equal to: **6225 kg**

**-**Given: Zero Fuel Mass: 6660 kg Trip Fuel: 990 kg Block Fuel: 1540 kg Taxi Fuel: 25 kg The actual Take-Off Mass is equal to: **8175 kg**

**-**If an aeroplane is at a higher mass than anticipated, for a given airspeed the angle of attack will: **be greater, drag will increase and endurance will decrease.**

**-**If individual masses are used, the mass of an aircraft must be determined prior to initial entry into service and thereafter: **at intervals of 4 years if no modifications have taken place.**

**-**If nose wheel moves aft during gear retraction, how will this movement affect the location of the centre of gravity (cg) on the aircraft? **It will cause the cg to move aft.**

-If the centre of gravity is near the forward limit the aeroplane will: **require elevator trim which will result in an increase in fuel consumption.**

**-**In calculations with respect to the position of the centre of gravity a reference is made to a datum. The datum is: **a reference plane which is chosen by the aircraft manufacturer. Its position is given in the aircraft Flight or Loading Manual.**

**-**In cruise flight, a centre of gravity moving aft will: **decrease longitudinal static stability**

**-**In cruise flight, a centre of gravity moving aft will: **decrease longitudinal static stability**

**-**In determining the Dry Operating Mass of an aeroplane it is common practice to use 'standard mass' values for crew. These values are: **flight crew 85 kg., cabin crew 75 kg. each. These are inclusive of a hand baggage allowance.**

-In mass and balance calculations the "index" is: **is a figure without unit of measurement which represents a moment.**

**-**In mass and balance calculations which of the following describes the datum? **It is the point on the aircraft designated by the manufacturer from which all centre of gravity measurements and calculations are made.**

**-**In relation to an aeroplane, the term '' Basic Empty Mass'' includes the mass of the aeroplane structure complete with its powerplants, systems, furnishings and other items of equipment considered to be an integral part of the particular aeroplane configuration. Its value is: **found in the latest version of the weighing schedule as corrected to allow for modifications.**

**-**Length of the mean aerodynamic chord = 1 m Moment arm of the forward cargo: -0,50 m Moment arm of the aft cargo: + 2,50 m The aircraft mass is 2 200 kg and its centre of gravity is at 25% MAC To move the centre of gravity to 40%, which mass has to be transferred from the forward to the aft cargo hold? **110 kg**

**-**Loads must be adequately secured in order to: **avoid unplanned centre of gravity (cg) movement and aircraft damage.**

**-**Longitudinal CG location is normally expressed: **as a percentage of the MAC from its leading edge.**

**-**Maximum allowed take-off mass limit: 37 200kg Dry Operating Mass: 21 600 kg Take-off fuel: 8 500 kg Passengers on board: male 33,female 32, children 5 Baggages: 880 kg The company uses the standard passenger mass systems (see annex) allowed by regulations. The flight is not a holiday charter. In these conditions, the maximum cargo that may be loaded is: **585 kg**

**-**Moment (balance) arms are measured from a specific point to the body station at which the mass is located. That point is known as: **the datum.**

**-**On an aeroplane with 20 or more seats engaged on an inter-continental flight, the 'standard mass' which may be used for passenger baggage is: **15 kg per passenger.**

**-**On an aeroplane with a seating capacity of more than 30, it is decided to use standard mass values for computing the total mass of passengers. If the flight is not a holiday charter, the mass value which may be used for an adult is: **84 kg**

**-**On an aeroplane without central fuel tank, the maximum Zero Fuel Mass is related to: **the bending moment at the wing root.**

**-**Overloading has the following effects on performance: **Increased take off and landing distance, reduced rate of climb and increased fuel consumption**

**-**Prior to departure an aircraft is loaded with 16500 litres of fuel at a fuel density of 780 kg/m³. This is entered into the load sheet as 16500 kg and calculations are carried out accordingly. As a result of this error, the aircraft is: **lighter than anticipated and the calculated safety speeds will be too high**

**-**Prior to departure the medium range twin jet aeroplane is loaded with maximum fuel of 20100 litres at a fuel density (specific gravity) of 0.78. Using the following data - Performance limited take-off mass 67200 kg Performance limited landing mass 54200 kg. Dry Operating Mass 34930 kg. Taxi fuel 250 kg. Trip fuel 9250 kg, Contingency and holding fuel 850 kg, Alternate fuel 700 kg. The maximum permissible traffic load is: **13090 kg.**

**-**Referring to Figure 4.9 in CAP 696, Which of the following combinations of compartment centroid and maximum load is correct: **835.5 in and 3062 kg.**

**-**Referring to the loading manual for the transport aeroplane, the maximum running load for the aft section of the forward lower deck cargo compartment is: **13.12 kg per inch.**

**-**Referring to the loading manual for the transport aeroplane, the maximum load intensity for the lower forward cargo compartment is: **68 kg per square foot.**

**-**'Standard Mass' as used in the computation of passenger load establish the mass of a child as: **35 kg irrespective of age provided they occupy a seat.**

**-**Standard masses may be used for the computation of mass values for baggage if the aeroplane: **has 20 or more seats.**

**-**The actual 'Take-off Mass' is equivalent to: **Dry Operating Mass plus take-off fuel and the traffic load**

**-**The actual 'Zero Fuel Mass' is equal to the: **Dry Operating Mass plus the traffic load.**

**-**The aeroplane has a mass of 61 000 kg in the cruise. The range of safe CG positions, as determined from the appropriate graph in the loading manual, is: **forward limit 8.3% aft limit 26.3% MAC**

**-**The aeroplane has a Take Off Mass of 58 000 kg. At this mass the range of safe CG positions, as determined from the appropriate graph in the loading manual, is: **Forward limit 8.0% MAC aft limit 26.5% MAC**

**-**The Basic Empty Mass is 4800 kg, the Dry Operating Mass is 5050 kg and the Zero Fuel Mass is 6210 kg. If the take-off mass is 8010 kg the useful load is: **2960 kg**

-The Basic Empty Mass is 4960 kg, the Dry Operating Mass is 5220 kg and the Zero Fuel Mass is 6040 kg. If the take-off mass is 7630 kg the useful load is: **2410 kg**

**-**The basic empty mass of an aircraft is 30 000 kg. The masses of the following items are : - catering: 300 kg - safety and rescue material: nil - fly away kit: nil - crew (inclusive crew baggage): 365kg - fuel at take-off: 3 000 kg - unusable fuel: 120 kg - passengers, baggage, cargo: 8 000 kg The Dry Operating Mass is : **30 665 kg**

**-**The BEM of an aircraft is 30,000kg. Given the following data calculate the DOM? - Catering = 300kg - Crew = 600kg - Trip Fuel = 1,200kg - Unusable Fuel = 30kg - Traffic Load = 2,500kg: **30900kg**

**-**The centre of gravity is the: **point where all the aircraft mass is considered to be concentrated**

**-**The centre of gravity location of the aeroplane is normally computed along the: **longitudinal axis.**

**-**The centre of gravity of a body is that point: **through which the sum of the forces of all masses of the body is considered to act.**

**-**The centre of gravity of an aeroplane is at 25% of the Mean Aerodynamic Chord. This means that the centre of gravity of the aeroplane is situated at 25% of the length of: **the mean aerodynamic chord in relation to the leading edge**

**-**The centre of gravity of an aircraft is that point through which the total mass of the aircraft is said to act. The weight acts in a direction: **parallel to the gravity vector.**

**-**The crew of a transport aeroplane prepares a flight using the following data: - Dry operating mass: 90 000 kg - Block fuel: 30 000 kg - Taxi fuel: 800 kg - Maximum take-off mass: 145 000 kg The traffic load available for this flight is: **25 800 kg**

**-**The crew of a transport aeroplane prepares a flight using the following data: - Dry operating mass: 90 000 kg - Block fuel: 30 000 kg - Taxi fuel: 800 kg - Maximum take-off mass: 145 000 kg The traffic load available for this flight is: **25 800 kg**

**-**The crew of a transport aeroplane prepares a flight using the following data: - Block fuel: 40 000 kg - Trip fuel: 29 000 kg - Taxi fuel: 800 kg - Maximum take-off mass: 170 000 kg - Maximum landing mass: 148 500 kg - Maximum zero fuel mass: 112 500 kg - Dry operating mass: 80 400 kg The maximum traffic load for this flight is: **32 100 kg**

**-**The datum is a reference from which all moment (balance) arms are measured. Its precise position is given in the control and loading manual and it is located: **at a convenient point which may not physically be on the aircraft.**

**-**The datum is a reference from which all moment (balance) arms are measured. Its precise position is given in the control and loading manual and it is located: **at a convenient point which may not physically be on the aircraft.**

**-**The datum used for balance calculations is: **chosen on the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane, but not necessarily between the nose and the tail of the aircraft**

**-**The distance from the datum to the Centre of Gravity of a mass is known as: **the moment arm or balance arm.**

**-**The Dry Operating Mass includes: **crew and crew baggage, catering, removable passenger service equipment, potable water and lavatory chemicals.**

**-**The Dry Operating Mass is the total mass of the aircraft ready for a specific type of operation but excluding: **usable fuel and traffic load.**

**-**The Dry Operating Mass of an aircraft is 2 000 kg. The Maximum Take-off Mass, Landing and Zero Fuel Mass are identical at 3500 kg. The block fuel mass is 550kg, and the taxi fuel mass is 50 kg. The available mass of traffic load is: **1 000 kg**

**-**The effect of the centre of gravity (CG) being close to the forward limit is: **a reduced rate of climb capability.**

**-**The empty mass of an aeroplane is given as 44800 kg. Operational items (including crew standard mass of 1060 kg) are 2300 kg. If the maximum zero fuel mass is given as 65500 kg, the maximum traffic load which could be carried is: **18400 kg**

**-**The empty mass of an aeroplane is recorded in: **the weighing schedule and is amended to take account of changes due to modifications of the aeroplane.**

**-**The empty mass of an aeroplane, as given in the weighing schedule, is 61300 kg. The operational items (including crew) is given as a mass of 2300 kg. If the take-off mass is 132000 kg (including a useable fuel quantity of 43800 kg) the useful load is: **68400 kg**

**-**The Empty Mass of an aircraft is recorded in: **the weighing schedule and is amended to take account of changes due to modifications of the aircraft.**

**-**The flight is a non holiday charter. Using the “all adult” standard mass values given in CAP 696 calculate the extra cargo that the aeroplane can carry? Given: MTOM 37200kg DOM 21600kg Fuel at T/O 8500kg Passenger load:33 Males, 32 females and 5 children Baggage 880kg: **585 kgs**

**-**The flight preparation of a turbojet aeroplane provides the following data: Take-off runway limitation: 185 000 kg Landing runway limitation: 180 000 kg Planned fuel consumption: 11 500 kg Fuel already loaded on board the aircraft: 20 000 kg Knowing that: Maximum take-off mass (MTOM): 212 000 kg Maximum landing mass (MLM): 174 000 kg Maximum zero fuel mass (MZFM): 164 000 kg Dry operating mass (DOM): 110 000 kg The maximum cargo load that the captain may decide to load on board is: **54 000 kg**

**-**The floor limit of an aircraft cargo hold is 5 000 N/m2. It is planned to load-up a cubic container measuring 0,4 m of side. It's maximum gross mass must not exceed: (assume g=10m/s2): **80 kg**

**-**The floor of the main cargo hold is limited to 4 000 N/m2. It is planned to load a cubic container each side of which measures 0.5m. Its maximum gross mass must not exceed: (assume g=10m/s2): **100 kg**

**-**The following data applies to a planned flight. Dry Operating Mass 34900 kg, Performance limited Take-Off Mass 66300 kg, Performance limited Landing Mass 55200 kg, Maximum Zero Fuel Mass 53070 kg, Fuel required at ramp:- Taxy fuel 400 kg, trip fuel 8600 kg, contingency fuel 430 kg, alternate fuel 970 kg, holding fuel 900 kg, Traffic load 16600 kg. Fuel costs at the departure airfield are such that it is decided to load the maximum fuel quantity possible. The total fuel which may be safely loaded prior to departure is : **12700 kg**

**-**The following data applies to an aeroplane which is about to take off: Certified maximum take-off mass - 141500 kg Performance limited take-off mass - 137300 kg Dry Operating Mass - 58400 kg Crew and crew hand baggage mass - 640 kg Crew baggage in hold - 110 kg Fuel on board - 60700 kg From this data calculate the mass of the useful load: **78900 kg**

**-**The following data is extracted from an aeroplane's loading manifest: Performance limited take-off mass 93500 kg Expected landing mass at destination 81700 kg Maximum certificated landing mass 86300 kg Fuel on board 16500 kg During the flight a diversion is made to an en-route alternate which is not 'performance limited' for landing. Fuel remaining at landing is 10300 kg. The landing mass: **is 87300 kg and excess structural stress could result**

**-**The following data relates to a planned flight of an aeroplane Dry Operational Mass 60 520 kg Performance limited take-off mass 92 750 kg Structural limited take-off mass 88 750 kg Performance limited landing mass 72 250 kg Structural limited landing mass 73 500 kg Maximum Zero Fuel mass 67 530 kg Fuel on board at take-off: Trip fuel 12500 kg Contingency and final reserve fuel 2300 kg Alternate fuel 1700 kg Using this data, as appropriate, calculate the maximum traffic load that can be carried: **7010 kg**

**-**The loaded centre of gravity (cg) of an aeroplane is 713 mm aft of datum. The mean aerodynamic chord lies between station 524 mm aft and 1706 mm aft. The cg expressed as % MAC (mean aerodynamic chord) is: **16 %**

**-**The mass and balance information gives : Basic mass : 1 200 kg ; Basic balance arm : 3.00 m Under these conditions the Basic centre of gravity is at 25% of the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC). The length of MAC is 2m. In the mass and balance section of the flight manual the following information is given : Position Arm front seats : 2.5 m rear seats : 3.5 m rear hold : 4.5 m fuel tanks : 3.0 m The pilot and one passenger embark; each weighs 80 kg. Fuel tanks contain 140 litres of petrol with a density of 0.714. The rear seats are not occupied.Taxi fuel is negligable. The position of the centre of gravity at take-off (as % MAC) is : **22 %**

**-**The mass and balance information gives: Basic mass: 1 200 kg ; Basic balance arm: 3.00 m Under these conditions the Basic centre of gravity is at 25% of the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC). The length of MAC is 2m. In the mass and balance section of the flight manual the following information is given : Position Arm. front seats : 2.5 m, rear seats : 3.5 m, rear hold : 4.5 m, fuel tanks : 3.0 m. The pilot and one passenger embark; each weighs 80 kg. Fuel tanks contain 140 litres of petrol with a density of 0.714. The rear seats are not occupied.Taxi fuel is negligable. The position of the centre of gravity at take-off (as % MAC) is : **22 %**

**-**The mass displacement caused by landing gear extension: **creates a longitudinal moment in the direction (pitch-up or pitch-down) determined by the type of landing gear**

**-**The mass of an aircraft is 1950 kg. If 450 kg is added to a cargo hold 1.75 metres from the loaded centre of gravity (cg). The loaded cg will move: **33 cm.**

**-**The mass of an item multiplied by it's distance from the datum is it's: **Moment**

**-**The maximum certificated take - off mass is: **a structural limit which may not be exceeded for any take - off.**

**-**The maximum certificated taxi (or ramp) mass is that mass to which an aeroplane may be loaded prior to engine start. It is: **a fixed value which is listed in the Flight Manual.**

**-**The maximum floor loading for a cargo compartment in an aeroplane is given as 750 kg per square metre. A package with a mass of 600 kg. is to be loaded. Assuming the pallet base is entirely in contact with the floor, which of the following is the minimum size pallet that can be used ? **40 cm by 200 cm**

**-**The maximum floor loading for a cargo compartment in an aircraft is given as 750 kg per square metre. A package with a mass of 600 kg. is to be loaded. Assuming the pallet base is entirely in contact with the floor, which of the following is the minimum size pallet that can be used ? **40 cm by 200 cm**

**-**The maximum intensity floor loading for an aeroplane is given in the Flight Manual as 650 kg per square metre. What is the maximum mass of a package which can be safely supported on a pallet with dimensions of 80 cm by 80 cm? **416.0 kg**

**-**The maximum load per running metre of an aircraft is 350 kg/m. The width of the floor area is 2 metres. The floor strength limitation is 300 kg per square metre. Which one of the following crates (length x width x height) can be loaded directly on the floor? **A load of 400 kg in a crate with dimensions 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 1.2 m.**

**-**The maximum mass to which an aeroplane may be loaded, prior to engine start, is: **maximum certificated taxi (ramp) mass.**

**-**The maximum quantity of fuel that can be loaded into an aircraft's tanks is given as 400 US Gallons. If the fuel density (specific gravity) is given as 0.79 the mass of fuel which may be loaded is: **1196 kg**

**-**The maximum quantity of fuel that can be loaded into an aircraft's tanks is given as 2200 l. If the fuel density (specific gravity) is given as 0.79 the mass of fuel which may be loaded is: **1738 kg**

**-**The maximum quantity of fuel that can be loaded into an aircraft''s tanks is given as 3800 US Gallons. If the fuel density (specific gravity) is given as 0.79 the mass of fuel which may be loaded is: **11364 kg.**

**-**The Maximum Structural Take-Off Mass is: **a limit which may not be exceeded for any take-off**

**-**The maximum taxi (ramp) mass is governed by: **structural considerations.**

**-**The maximum zero fuel mass is a mass limitation for the: **strength of the wing root structure**

**-**The Maximum Zero Fuel Mass is a mass limitation for the: **strength of the wing root**

**-**The Maximum Zero Fuel Mass is a structural limiting mass. It is made up of the aeroplane Dry Operational mass plus: **traffic load and unuseable fuel.**

**-**The Maximum Zero Fuel Mass is: **a structural limit listed in the Flight Manual as a fixed value.**

**-**The Maximum Zero Fuel Mass is: **a structural limit listed in the Flight Manual as a fixed value.**

**-**The maximum zero-fuel mass: 1- is a regulatory limitation 2- is calculated for a maximum load factor of +3.5 g 3- is based on the maximum permissible bending moment at the wing root 4- is defined on the assumption that fuel is consumed from the outer wings tank first 5- is defined on the assumption that fuel is consumed from the centre wing tank first The combination of correct statements is: **1, 3, 5**

**-**The medium range jet transport aeroplane is to operate a flight carrying the maximum possible fuel load. Using the following data as appropriate, determine the mass of fuel on board at start of take off. Departure airfield performance limited take-off mass: 60 400 kg. Landing airfield -not performance limited. Dry Operating Mass: 34930 kg Fuel required for flight - Taxi fuel: 715 kg Trip fuel: 8600 kg Contingency and final reserve fuel: 1700 kg Alternate fuel 1500 kg Additional reserve 400 kg Traffic load for flight 11000 kg: **14 470 kg**

**-**The moment for an item is: **The mass of the item multiplied by it's distance from the datum**

**-**The operating mass of an aeroplane is: **The dry operating mass plus the take-off fuel mass.**

**-**The operator of an aircraft equipped with 50 seats uses standard masses for passengers and baggage. During the preparation of a scheduled flight a group of passengers present themselves at the check-in desk, it is apparent that even the lightest of these exceeds the value of the declared standard mass: **the operator should use the individual masses of the passengers or alter the standard masss**

**-**The reference about which centre of gravity moments are taken is the: **Datum**.

**-**The responsibility for determination of the mass of 'operating items' and 'crew members' included within the Dry Operating Mass lies with: **the operator**.

**-**The standard mass for a child is: **35 kg for all flights.**

**-**The take-off mass of an aeroplane is 117 000 kg, comprising a traffic load of 18 000 kg and fuel of 46 000 kg. What is the dry operating mass? **53 000 kg**

**-**The take-off mass of an aeroplane is 141000 kg. Total fuel on board is 63000 kg including 14000 kg reserve fuel and 1000 kg of unusable fuel. The traffic load is 12800 kg. The zero fuel mass is: **79000 kg**

**-**The Take-off Mass of an aeroplane is 66700 kg which includes a traffic load of 14200 kg and a usable fuel load of 10500 kg. If the standard mass for the crew is 545 kg the Dry Operating Mass is: **42000 kg**

**-**The term 'Maximum Zero Fuel Mass' consist of: **The maximum permissible mass of an aeroplane with no usable fuel.**

**-**The term 'useful load' as applied to a aircraft includes: **traffic load plus useable fuel.**

**-**The total mass of an aeroplane is 145000 kg and the centre of gravity limits are between 4.7 m and 6.9 m aft of the datum. The loaded centre of gravity position is 4.4 m aft. How much mass must be transferred from the front to the rear hold in order to bring the out of limit centre of gravity position to the foremost limit: **7 500 kg**

**-**The total mass of an aeroplane is 9000 kg. The centre of gravity (cg) position is at 2.0 m from the datum line. The aft limit for cg is at 2.1 m from the datum line. What mass of cargo must be shifted from the front cargo hold (at 0.8 m from the datum) to the aft hold (at 3.8 m), to move the cg to the aft limit? **300 kg**

**-**The total mass of the aeroplane including crew, crew baggage; plus catering and removable passenger equipment; plus potable water and lavatory chemicals but excluding usable fuel and traffic load, is referred to as: **Dry Operating Mass.**

**-**The Traffic Load is defined as: **The total mass of passengers, baggage and cargo, including any non revenue load**

**-**The Traffic Load is defined as: **The total mass of passengers, baggage and cargo, including any non revenue load**

**-**The weight of an aircraft, which is in level non accelerated flight, is said to act: **vertically through the centre of gravity.**

**-**The Zero Fuel Mass and the Dry Operating Mass: **differ by the value of the traffic load mass.**

**-**The Zero Fuel Mass of an aeroplane is always: **the Take-off Mass minus the mass of take-off fuel.**

**-**To calculate the allowable take-off mass, the factors to be taken into account include: **the sum of the Maximum Landing Mass and the trip fuel.**

**-**To calculate the allowable take-off mass, the factors to be taken into account include: **the sum of the Maximum Landing Mass and the trip fuel.**

**-**To measure the mass and CG-position of an aircraft, it should be weighed with a minimum of: **3 points of support**

**-**Traffic load is the difference between: **the take-off mass and the operating mass.**

**-**Traffic load is the: **Zero Fuel Mass minus Dry Operating Mass.**

**-**Use graphic to determine the Dry Operating Index for a DOM of 35,000kg and a %MAC of 14%: **40**

**-**Using Fig 4.9 in CAP696, what is the maximum running load in the aft section of the forward lower compartment? **13.12kg.in**

**-**Using the data given at the appendix to this question, if the fuel index corrections (from ZFM index) are as follows 9500 kg - 0.9 6500 kg - 6.1 3500 kg - 4.7 3000 kg - 4.3 Which of the following represent the correct values for landing mass of the aeroplane and the position of the centre of gravity for this condition ? **49130 kg and 19 %**

**-**Using the data given at the appendix, determine which of the following correctly gives the values of the Zero Fuel Mass (ZFM) of the aeroplane and the load index at ZFM: **48600 kg and 57.0**

**-**Using the data given in the Load & Trim sheet, determine from the following the correct values for the take off mass and the position of the centre of gravity at that mass if the fuel index correction to be applied is given as - 0.9: **17.5 %**

**-**Using the data given in the Load & Trim sheet, determine which of the following gives the correct values for the Zero Fuel Mass and position of the centre of gravity (% MAC) at that mass: **46130 Kg and 17,8%**

**-**Using the load and trim sheet for the MRJT1 aircraft which of the following is the correct value for the index at a Dry Operating Mass (DOM) of 35000 kg with a CG at 14% MAC ? **40.0**

**-**Using the reference provided, without the crew, the weight and the CG position of the aircraft are 7 000 kg and 4.70m. The mass of the pilot is 90 kg, the mass of the co-pilot is 75 kg and the mass of the flight engineer is 90 kg. With this crew on board, the CG position of the aircraft will be: **4.615m**

**-**What are the standard masses used for crew? **85 kgs for flight crew, 75 kgs cabin crew, including hand baggage**

**-**What determines the longitudinal stability of an aeroplane ? **The location of the centre of gravity with respect to the neutral point.**

**-**What effect has a centre of gravity close to the most forward limit? **A reduced rate of climb capability.**

**-**What mass has to be entered in the loading chart for aviation fuel F 34 if 170 l may be refuelled? (Fuel density = 0.78 kg/l): **133 kg**

**-**When an aircraft is stationary on the ground, its total weight will act vertically: **through its centre of gravity.**

**-**When considering the effects of increased mass on an aeroplane, which of the following is true? **Stalling speeds will be higher.**

**-**When establishing the mass breakdown of an aeroplane, the empty mass is defined as the sum of the: **standard empty mass plus specific equipment mass plus trapped fluids plus unusable fuel mass**

**-**When has the centre of gravity to be computed? **Prior to every flight**

**-**When preparing to carry out the weighing procedure on an aircraft, which of the following is not required? **drain all engine tank oil.**

**-**When the centre of gravity is at the forward limit, an aeroplane will be: **extremely stable and will require excessive elevator control to change pitch.**

**-**Where is the centre of gravity of the aeroplane in the diagram? **26.57 cm forward of datum.**

**-**Which is true of the aircraft basic empty mass? **It is a component of dry operating mass.**

**-**Which of the following corresponds to zero fuel mass? **The take-off mass of an aeroplane minus all usable fuel.**

**-**Which of the following is most likely to affect the range of centre of gravity positions on an aeroplane? **Elevator and tailplane (horizontal stabiliser) effectiveness in all flight conditions.**

**-**Which of the following is unlikely to have any effect on the position of the centre of gravity on an aeroplane in flight ? **Changing the tailplane (horizontal stabiliser) incidence angle.**

**-**Which of the following statements is correct? **A tail heavy aeroplane is less stable and stalls at a lower speed than a nose heavy aeroplane**

**-**Which of the following statements is correct? **A tail heavy aeroplane is less stable and stalls at a lower speed than a nose heavy aeroplane**

**-**Which of the following statements is correct? **The Maximum Landing Mass of an aeroplane is restricted by structural limitations, performance limitations and the strength of the runway.**

**-**Which of the following statements is correct? **The Maximum Landing Mass of an aeroplane is restricted by structural limitations, performance limitations and the strength of the runway.**

**-**Which one of the following is correct? **Arm = Moment / Force**

**-**While making mass and balance calculation for a particular aircraft, the term 'Basic Empty Mass' applies to the sum of airframe, engine(s), fixed ballast plus: **unusable fuel and full operating fluids.**

-With respect to a multi-engine piston powered aeroplane, determine the total moment (lbs.In) at landing in the following conditions: Basic empty mass: 3 210 lbs. One pilot: 160 lbs. Front seat passenger : 200 lbs. Centre seat passengers: 290 lbs. (total) One passenger rear seat: 110 lbs. Baggage in zone 1: 100 lbs. Baggage in zone 4: 50 lbs. Block fuel: 100 US Gal. Trip fuel: 55 US Gal. Fuel for start up and taxi (included in block fuel): 3 US Gal. Fuel density: 6 lbs./US Gal. Total moment at take-off: 432226 lbs.In: **401 338**

**-**With respect to a multi-engine piston powered aeroplane, determine the CG location at take off in the following conditions: Basic empty mass: 3 210 lbs. One pilot: 160 lbs. Front seat passenger : 200 lbs. Centre seat passengers: 290 lbs. (total) One passenger rear seat: 110 lbs. Baggage in zone 1: 100 lbs. Baggage in zone 4: 50 lbs. Zero Fuel Mass: 4120 lbs. Moment at Zero Fuel Mass: 377751 lbs.In Block fuel: 100 US Gal. Trip fuel: 55 US Gal. Fuel for start up and taxi (included in block fuel): 3 US Gal. Fuel density: 6 lbs./US Gal: **91.92 inches aft of datum**

**-**With respect to a single-engine piston powered aeroplane, determine the zero fuel moment (lbs.In./100) in the following conditions: Basic Empty Mass: 2415 lbs. Arm at Basic Empty Mass: 77,9 In. Cargo Zone A: 350 lbs. Baggage Zone B: 35 lbs. Pilot and front seat passenger : 300 lbs (total): **2548,8**

**-**With respect to a single-engine piston powered aeroplane, determine the zero fuel moment (lbs.In./100) in the following conditions: Basic Empty Mass: 2415 lbs. Arm at Basic Empty Mass: 77,9 In. Cargo Zone A: 350 lbs. Baggage Zone B: 35 lbs. Pilot and front seat passenger : 300 lbs (total): **2548,8**

**-**With respect to aeroplane loading in the planning phase, which of the following statements is always correct ? LM = Landing Mass TOM = Take-off Mass MTOM = Maximum Take-off Mass ZFM = Zero Fuel Mass MZFM = Maximum Zero Fuel Mass DOM = Dry Operating Mass. **LM = TOM - Trip Fuel**

**-**With respect to multi-engine piston powered aeroplane, determine the ramp mass (lbs) in the following conditions: Basic empty mass: 3 210 lbs, Basic arm: 88.5 Inches, One pilot: 160 lbs, Front seat passenger : 200 lbs, Centre seat passengers: 290 lbs, One passenger rear seat: 110 lbs, Baggage in zone 1: 100 lbs, Baggage in zone 4: 50 lbs, Block fuel: 100 US Gal. Trip fuel: 55 US Gal. Fuel for start up and taxi (included in block fuel): 3 US Gal. Fuel density: 6 lbs/US Gal.: **4 720**

**-**With respect to multi-engine piston powered aeroplane, determine the block fuel moment (lbs.In.) in the following conditions: Basic empty mass: 3 210 lbs. One pilot: 160 lbs. Front seat passenger : 200 lbs. Centre seat passengers: 290 lbs. (total) One passenger rear seat: 110 lbs. Baggage in zone 1: 100 lbs. Baggage in zone 4: 50 lbs. Block fuel: 100 US Gal. Trip fuel: 55 US Gal. Fuel for start up and taxi (included in block fuel): 3 US Gal. Fuel density: 6 lbs./US Gal. Total moment at take-off: 432226 lbs.In: **56 160**

**-**Without the crew, the mass and longitudinal CG position of the aircraft are 6 000 kg and 4,70m. - the mass of the pilot is 90 kg - the mass of the copilot is 100 kg - the mass of the flight engineer is 80 kg With the crew, the mass and longitudinal CG position of the aircraft are : **6 270 kg and 4.594 m**

**-**Without the crew, the weight and the CG-position of the aircraft are 7 000 kg and 4,70m. - the mass of the pilot is 90 kg - the mass of the copilot is 75 kg - the mass of the flight engineer is 90 kg With this crew on board, the CG-position of the aircraft will be: **4,615 m**