Classified in History

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Brest- Litovsk: G+R ended WW1 for Russia. R treated very harshly, being forced to give up all her rich western lands.(26% of railways and population, 74 iron and coal.) Fundamental laws:(06) introduced by the Tsar, backtracked on promises made in oct rev. Limited powers of duma. Kadets: the Constitutional democrats founded at the beggining of the 20th century, believed in a limited form of representative democracy. Kerensky member of the SRs, member of the provisional govt, exhiled after the oct. Rev. Kornilov: general who attemmpted a coup d´etat in sept against orivisional govt. And gave more influence to the bolshevicks. Kulaks: richer peasants who took advantage of Stolypins reforms. October manifesto: Promise of reform made by NicholasII after 1905 rev. Okhrana: Tsarist secret police. Orden No 1: March 1917 soldiers were to send representatives to the Soviet, taking power of army, giving it to the petrograd soviet. Rasputin: a holy man, from serbia who claimed to perform miracles, wanting to cure the Tsars son, had influence on Tsarina, har orgies with women of the Russian royal court. Blamed for undermining support for the Tsarist regime, assasinated(1916). Redemption payments: money which peasants paid each year to purchase their freedom since 1861, cancelled in 1907. Serfs: peasants with no rights, freedoms or land of their own. Socialism: Political ideology that holds that a countrys land, transport, natural resources, and main industries should be owned by the state and wealth should be distributed equally. Soviets: workers councils made up of representatives from factories, coordinated strikes and anti-government protests in 1905. Stolypin: Prime minister from 1906 until his assasination 1911. Brought in agricultural reform, tried to modernise Russia but also dealt with opponents harshly. Trotsky:  Menshevik, joined the bolsheviks in July 1917 playing a key role in the revolution. In 1918 he became comissar for the war leading to the Red army to victory in the Civil War. Assasinated by Stalin. Zemstsvos: local councils set up in 19th century to improve social services for the population such as schools and hospitals. They were given limited powers.

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