1 • The Spanish lexicon
• The set of words that shaped our language is called the Spanish lexicon. Its origin and other aspects of grammar is not lexicology (the study of the lexicon)
1.1 - The word as sign language
• The verbal code that uses human beings to communicate this consists of a series of units called linguistic signs.
• The sign language is made up of:
è Significant: This consists of a chain of articulated sounds, in the writing aspect, by a string of graphemes. Example table
è Meaning: is the concept or idea. Example table: furniture consisting ...
· Characteristics of the linguistic sign:
è Arbitrariness: The string of graphemes m, e, s, is conventional -> could be formed by another string sounds different
and immutable for the speaker: The speaker of a language can not alter the signifier of meaning.
è Fickle over time: Linguistic signs evolve over time and, therefore, their meaning can vary.
1.2 - The double articulation of language and phonemes monemes
· Monemes: minimal units are equipped with meaning. They constitute the first articulation of language.
Ex niñ - o - s (nin -> young person or -> gender male /
s -> number plural)
· Phonemes: the fragmentation of smaller units of speech
Eg / n / / i / n / / o / / s /
1.3 - monemes and their classification
è Lexeme: The moneme that contains the lexical meaning of the word
è Morpheme:Moneme is the lexeme that is attached to give meaning to the word grammar (gender, number, person ...)
Ex niñ (lexeme -> young person) or - s (morphemes that provide the grammatical meaning of the word -> gender and number)
· Classes of morphemes:
- Free or independent morphemes are attached to lexemes without joining them.
Ex Day -> The article (the) provides the lexeme (day), the morpheme
gender (male). Chocolate con churros -> The preposition (with) the lexemes retinue but not one of them.
- Locking or dependent: They should join the stem, and individually devoid of meaning.
-> Inflectional: Attached to nouns, adjectives and verbs without changing their lexical meaning. In case of nouns and adjectives provide gender and number and in the case of verbs provide the mode, tense, aspect, number and person.
-> Derivatives: They bind to and modify their lexeme lexical meaning. You can also call affixes.
· Prefixes: in front of the lexeme
· Suffixes appear behind the lexeme
Suffixes appreciative or not: alter the meaning, the word means a different reality than the original
or appreciative suffixes: they provide a subjective assessment of the speaker on the floor
· Interfijos: They appear in the middle of the lexeme
2 · Word formation:
2.1 - Simple words:
è A token: morphemes have not only have the lexeme.
è A token combined with inflections: Word formation by a stem and one or more inflections.
è A free morpheme: independent morphemes are free or simple words: the, of ...
2.2 - Compound words:
è Lexeme + Lexeme: parachutes, umbrellas, sunflowers, bumper ...
Free Morpheme Morpheme è + free: although, but, also, the ...
Free Morpheme è + Lexeme: premature ex-boyfriend, postwar ...
2.3 - words derived:
· Is the union of a lexeme with one or more affixes
è A change in the grammatical category of the word are: last -> duration / beat -> im-bat-ible
è A change in the meaning of the word derivative: muñequ-ita -> diminutive / grand-ote -> augmentative / bi - ARRACADA -> pejorative
2.4 - Palabras parasintéticas
-K to be separdas Akella has no significdo, eg a-sir-ed, not exste aseñor, no ma'am.
2.5 - Palabras acronym or abbreviation:
Acronyms -> Do not make a word. Ex IB -> Iberia
Acronimi -> initials of a name that is used to not repeat it. Ex UFO -> Unidentified Flying Object
- Types of words:
-> Variables - invariant: invariant categories: adverb, conjunction, preposition
-> Simple or compound
-> Primitive or derived
3 - semantic level:è Meaning of words:
or Denotation: meaning of the word
or connotation derogatory meaning we give ourselvesè semantic Phenomena:
or Polysemy -> 1 signifying different meanings
or Synonyms -> 1 with different significant meaning
or Antonymy -> contrary meaningsor Homonymy
§ homograph: it is spelled the same but have different meanings
§ homophones: are pronounced the same but have different meanings
or Paronimia: they resemble the way to write and auditoryè Semantic changes:
or historical factors: New meaning of words because of the passage of time
or social factors: Rejection of words have unpleasant connotations for speakers. Eg cancer -> terminal illness ...
or linguistic factors: semantic change is caused by the spread of mean between two words that always appear together.
Eg a postcard -> a postcard / coffee cut -> a cut
or psychological factors: Semantic changes that have had their origin in a mental association.
§ Metaphor:An element receives and another by name similarity. Ex Spider -> bug or lamp / lynx -> wily feline animal
§ Metonymy: An element takes the name of another even though there including a similarity. Eg He drank the whole bottle -> Indicates that took its total content.