The Middle Ages: Situation historical, political, social, economic and linguistic

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Medieval history

It is called the Middle Ages, the long historical period of Western civilization between the V and XV century. Its onset is conventionally located in 476 with the fall of the Roman Empire and its end in 1492 with the discovery of America. The Middle Ages is divided into two periods: Middle Ages (V century to century) Delayed ntigüedad) and Late Middle Ages (eleventh century to fifteenth century), which in turn can be divided into a period of plenty, full Middle Ages (eleventh century to the thirteenth century) and the last two centuries have witnessed the crisis of the Middle Ages or the fourteenth century.

Economic situation

In medieval times, the economic system is based on agriculture, under a feudal form. Royalty, nobility and clergy landless peasants, were responsible for cultivating quiens. . Delivered crops to supply the lord's house in whatever rank or status and the peasants. Until the twelfth century, the production is intended solely to supplying the inhabitants of the fiefs. Besides agriculture, the other main pillar of the medieval Spanish economy in livestock. The cattle business is not only interested the owners but also to the Crown, who saw the sales tax. This tax was levied to the migrants from the sale of products and services and tribute, to the merchants who traded at home and abroad especially with products such as wool or hides, and many large landowners, military orders, monasteries and nobility that, besides having their own cattle, pastures leased to outsiders. Were an impetus for the development of some manufactures such as leather and wool, made by artisans in small family workshops. Thanks to these first workshops throughout the Middle Ages guilds emerge or groups of artisans who worked the same products. The purposes of these guilds were essentially economic and political. . Most of the time were both manufacturers and sellers. The marketing of products was carried out in the markets, spaces created at this time, they could have a local or provincial levels, improving thanks to the continued growth of cities.

Social situation

Medieval society was for centuries a basically rural society. In the Middle Ages to ninety percent of the population lived in rural areas, center of all activities and daily life for the inhabitants of that time. In the early medieval centuries, farmers were organized around some common land of their own and others, such as forests, which they shared with their neighbors. In small groups, imposing its laws and justice, organized the crops and resources they obtained them.
Gradually, these communities were absorbed by lords, lay or religious, who had been given the land. So started what today we call feudal or feudal system, introduced as a way of social organization. Feudalism is the social, political and economic based on the feud that dominated western Europe between the ninth and fifteenth centuries. It was cultivated land properties mainly by serfs, part of whose production had to be given by way of "census" (lease) to the owner of the land, in most cases a minor noble (lord) nominally loyal to a king . Society was divided into estates: at the base are the farmers, free or slaves, who accounted for the vast majority of the population (subjects) are in between the military and the nobles, lay and clergy. Arriva It is found in the pyramid, the king and his family. The lords and the military, in turn, swear allegiance to the king through the ceremony of homage, ensuring their support and strength in times of war. The king, grateful, gave lands or manors to nobles as a lifelong, hereditary, passing to be directed and governed by them from their castles or fortresses, businesses not only politically but also economically.

Political situation

Feudalism was the system of political, social and economic role in the Middle Ages. With feudalism, creating a new system that allowed the balance and mutual help among royalty and nobility, leading to a new distribution of power and wealth. The way it was developed vassalage, subordination of the primeros.A seconds over from the eleventh century, after the end of the barbarian invasions of the European area, begin to emerge feudal monarchies, through political processes as Crusades or the Reconquista in Spain. Lords, nobles, who for years made their whole family noble lineage, with advantages that were transmitted through heredity, began to take much power. It went from a single power is centralized, the empire, the establishment of many small powers over land of different sizes on hand of the nobles. Each land was constituted as an economic and political entity. Each land was addressed differently and that since the laws were not written but were based on traditions and customs of each people, could be interpreted in different ways.

Cultural and intellectual situation

The medieval centuries were, imes of movement of people and ideas, supported by the development of commerce, cities and the new emerging class, the bourgeoisie, as well as universities and pilgrimages, besides the movement of minstrels and monks large orders ranging from one monastery to another. The exchange to which we refer was favored by the use of Latin as a common language, since not only was the mode of expression of the most educated, but also the people. Not all spoke the same Latin society, have been distinguished from that used by the monks in their translations and copies, now considered an essential step in the development of culture-and used by the people, provided orally.

Language context

Romance languages are born in the former dominions of the Roman Empire. In the Iberian Peninsula, will be formed in the northern: Galician, Asturian-Leonese, Castilian, Navarrese-Aragonese and Catalan. Linguistic borders matching the political domains of the various kingdoms and the vicissitudes of these influence the Zimmer, odesaparición dissemination of various romances. The Castilian eventually spread over a vast territory. For its part, the consolidation of the kingdom of Portugal divided the Portuguese Galician. And the Catalan eventually spread across the east of the peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Instead, the Asturian-Leonese and Aragonese-Navarrese were relegated to small local units. Furthermore, the area dominated by Arabs, Mozarabic dialect was spoken, who disappeared along with the Muslim power. The earliest texts date back to the century Castilian X. Are Emilianense annotations and glosses Silos. Since then, Castilian began the process of implementation

Popular lyrics.
Throughout the Middle Ages are living together different popular songs in the peninsular Romance languages, although there are no extant sample of them all. The thematic and formal similitudese are clear and his main literary value is in the extreme simplicity of its composition. Next to the predominate theme of love, there are many poems relating to village life tasks. These poems express and provoke an intense lyrical feeling, concentrating in few lines the essence of the feeling evoked a mystery, leaving the circumstances that cause it.
Galician-Portuguese Lyric: Between XII-XIV centuries. Lyrical profana.Cantigas of love (for a man, courtly love theme), friend (the woman complains of the absence of his beloved) and derision (deride vices, defects or people). Alfonso X the Wise writes in the Galician-Portuguese Cantigas de Santa Maria.

The clergy mesterde
"The Castilian epics
are called epics. Of these, only surviving the Cantar de Mio Cid. The poem of the Cid was composed in the late twelfth century by an anonymous cult author, who was able to use earlier versions. The text was given to be read, but to be disseminated orally by bards. The Poem of Mio Cid recounts the adventures of Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid. The work is divided into three parts or two dessarrolla songs and story lines in which a credible mix historical events with facts and invented characters. The theme of the Poema de Mio Cid is the loss and recovery, twice, for the honor of the hero-that is, his reputation and social standing, which reaches its climax at the end of the work.

He called all the old ballads of anonymous ballads transmitted orally by bards or by the people. The first romance emerged in the late fourteenth century from the fragments of epic poems that were of most interest to the public. Appeared after romances with other themes and issues. Thus, romandes can be classified in groups as shown below:
Historical. They are based on real events or characters. Could be - epic (songs of Genstar come from above). - News (reciting historic fact newer)
Romance. They present facts or entirely imaginary characters.
Metric characteristics and their relationship to the chanson de geste (romacero): is a variable length poem, written in eight-syllable verses, rhyming pairs asonate and odd numbers are sueltos.Esta structure is similar to that of the chanson de geste.

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