The rhetoric and oratory

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The oratory is the art of public speaking. The fondness of the Greeks for this, finds its proper context in the new socio-political forms after the tyrannies are organized in democratic regimes. One of the basic tenets of democracy is the right of every citizen to freely presenting their views at meetings. The first speakers who composed "Tecnai" were Corax and Tisias. With them appears as art rhetoric that establishes the theoretical principles underlying the speech. Cultivated the doctrine of "ejikob" (foundation of credibility), and structured the speech into three parts (introduction, discussion and conclusions.)
Greek rhetoric is the evolution of the old hymn-poetry, so the ancients believed some heroes and gods as the first speakers Greeks and Homer as the inventor of rhetoric. At the time of Pericles and during the Peloponnesian War Athens displayed a lot of characters from the Hellenistic world.
The Sophists were the core. A) whether each of its manifestations were due to the nature or the human convention .
b) A good education required above all a great capacity for argument, dialectic.
Through dialogue, the disciple came to the solutions of problems. The Sophists dealt with grammar, the goal was the correction and property in the use of language. Gorgias. In his speeches are now the main elements which will then appear in so many eulogies and praises. The rhetoric of Gorgias theory emphasizes the systematization of what he called "figures Gorgiano." He discovered the artistic value of the word outside of poetry in prose. Was the rhetorical influence of the decisive causes in the decline of the tragedy and other genres of poetry.

Speaking Aristotle classified in three genera: a) political oratory. The greatest orator of antiquity was Demosthenes (384 - 322). Demosthenes conquest and captivates the listener for his beliefs and feelings and above all is the presence of general ideas, which gives his argument a lifting power and deep penetration into the consciousness. The style of Demosthenes, careful study reveals. His style is vigorous and severe. His best known works are the Philippics, 4 speeches with which he inspired the Athenians fought Philip of Macedonia, but Philip won the battle of Chaeronea. And speaking on the crown, which was against Aeschines, another speaker and a political rival. After the death of Aleixandre back to Athens and put the people against the Macedonians, but prefers to kill before falling into Macedonian hands. b) judicial oratory. The forensic speeches were written by professionals for qu 'the pronounced themselves concerned logographers. The first was Antiphon who gave the scheme was the basis for subsequent forensic speeches. The parts of speech are: Introduction, Narration of the facts, Establishment of the topic, presentation of the arguments, rebuttal of the arguments to the contrary, amplification, Lysias Peroración.La forensic oratory reached its zenith. He supported the democratic sectors. 30 languages ​​are preserved, everyone tries their clients' private affairs, unless the XII "Against Eratosthenes." In Lysias acknowledges the accuracy of its legal interpretation, selection and assessment of the evidence, the dialectic of his argument skill and energy of the Clear and peroration.Emphasizes the ability to create a character and give feelings. Expressed simply, the language used pure Attic. c) Such Speaking epideictic oratory is less well represented than before. Isocrates was the most representative. Created a school of rhetoric. Their activity must be seen in its dual role as political essayist and master of rhetoric. The theoretical program of teaching appears in "Against the Sophists," a manifesto against them, which distinguish X because it put the eloquence in the service of civil and political ideals, against ethical indifference and relativism sophistical. Isocrates was the political thinker most influential of the century, but above all it was a great artist of Greek prose, which led to the perfection and endowed with self-paced structure, a mixture of poetry and prose.

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