Theater

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Like poetry and the novel , the theater was also severely affected by the consequences of the terrible Civil War (1936-1939). Once the war, authorities thought that the theater could be a good balm to try to overcome the moral and psychological wounds that war had produced. Thus, began to be performed works of very low quality, however, were wildly applauded by an enthusiastic public. Two major playwrights, such as Federico García Lorca and Miguel Hernandez , had died as a result of the war, and three others, as Rafael Alberti , Alejandro Casona and Max Aub, were exiled.

Max Aub (Paris, 1903 - Mexico, 1972) wrote plays of quality inspired by the war, what have you done today to win the war? And die by closing the eyes (1944), On the other hand, during the years of postwar period also saw a commercial theater essentially comic, whose main purpose was to produce laughter. Two authors stand out in this type of theater and Miguel Enrique Jardiel Poncela Mihura. Poncela Jardiel Enrique (1901-1952) After quite significant successes before the Civil War , Jardiel Poncela during the war, continues to succeed. His works are notable for the sharpness of the dialogue and absurd situations .. Heloise stand beneath an almond tree (1940), thieves are honest people (1941) and The inhabitants of the empty house (1942). Mihura Miguel (1905-1977) Born into a family dedicated to the theater, from very small is contact with the world of the scene. The comedy writing is remarkable how many hats Three, written in 1932. The theater realistic social criticism during the fifties and sixties in Spain develops a kind of theater that tries to reflect social reality as it is presented daily, with a clear purpose of complaint. It is a commitment that dispenses theater fantasies and idealizations. It aims to echo the concerns of his time, as literary and historical narrative. Condemns the harsh working conditions, the dehumanization of the bureaucracy, the situation of workers, social injustice, the hardness of the opposition ... Thus, the theater becomes the speaker of the lower classes and in the defense of the dignity of life. Obviously, this kind of theater are seen frequently with censorship, as the Franco regime tolerates no criticism Antonio Buero Vallejo (1916-2000)Antonio Buero Vallejo is sentenced to death by the Franco regime. In prison he meets Miguel Hernandez , who draws one of the best-known portraits of the author today Alicante. In 1949, Buero is pardoned and that same year, gets carpet in one of the most important plays of our literature: History of a ladder. It narrates the lives of three generations of residents, their hopes and failures, as a symbol of life throughout the country. The first act takes place in 1919, the second in 1929 and third in 1949. Time passes, but poverty and problems are always the same, from parents to children. This is clearly a work of social criticism. In his plays are long and careful annotations that provide great literary value to the reading of any of his works. The Burning Darkness (1950) is the next work by this author. It tells the limitations of a group of people blind to reality and the rebellion of some of them to this situation. The same theme is years later in the concert of San Ovidio (1962). In addition to these dramas, Buero has some works based on historical events, like a dreamer to a people (1958), based on Esquilache, minister of Charles III, Las Meninas (1962), Velázquez, and The Sleep of Reason (1970 ) on Francisco de Goya. The theme of the Civil War appears in The Skylight (1967) and Mission to the deserted village (1999). Other works are The Foundation (1974), Cayman (1981) and Lazarus and the Labyrinth (1986). Antonio Buero Vallejo is one of the most important authors of our theater, in the renewal of the theater of war. Alfonso Sastre (1926) Faced with Buero because of their different conception of the theater, Sastre believes that the fundamental purpose of the theater should be the complaint as an aesthetic rather than revolution, that is, believes that the arguments should witness what is going to try to change society, of course, Taylor has problems with the censors, especially after the publication of one of his main works: Squad to the death (1953y two works in which they complain political issues such as the Vietnam War: Terror Exercises (1970) and magnetic tapes (1971). It should be added The Last Days of Immanuel Kant (1990), work in dealing with the aging of the philosopher. Other authors framed in social realism Many were the playwrights who devoted much of his work to expose the oppressive situation that existed in Spain in the fifties and early sixties under the yoke of the Franco regime. They took as a model social work report earlier settled a precedent in our literature, as Juan José (1896), Joaquin Dicenta. So, Lauro Olmo (1922-1994) becomes the history of our theater his work The Shirt (1961), which is a theme as current as the emigration as a solution to poverty. Remember that during the fifties and sixties a large number of Spanish were compelled to migrate, or industrial areas Spain, like Madrid, Barcelona and Bilbao, or Central European countries like Switzerland, France, Germany, for its part, José María Rodríguez Méndez (1925) denounces the plight experienced by opponents of the civil service in Los innocent la Moncloa (1961). The commercial theater during the fifties and sixties alsoJardiel Poncela, Mihura , Pemán or Luca de Tena , other young authors began to publish during these two decades in order to reach the public. Alfonso Paso (1926-1978) Start by setting a clear intention social theater, with works like trial of a scoundrel (1952) and The poor things (1957), but soon becomes his works to shape the tastes of the bourgeois public accustomed to the friendly representations such as Let's tell lies (1961), The Rights of Women (1962) o who have served (1962). Alfonso Paso has a very extensive work and varied: dramatic skits, plays, poetry, history, tragedies, works of social criticism, comedy, comedy, black humor. His works are by the grace of the dialogue and the uniqueness of the situations and characters. Antonio Gala (1936) It is one of the most well known today; cultivated all genres (poetry, theater, novels, essays, opinion columns) with great success. With regard to the theater, presents works peppered with poetic and often humorous touches. Its success, since the first performances, there is no doubt, more to the public than among the critics. Began his career in theater with The green fields of Eden (1963), tinged with social and romantic, has a family that is forced to live in the family vault. Gets great success with The Sun in the nest (1965), in November and a bit of grass (1967), The Good Days Lost (1972), The harps hung on the trees (1974) and, above all, Rings for a Lady ( 1973), which deals with Jimena, wife of the Cid. His last successes were the musical Carmen, Carmen (1988) and Friday Apples (2000). The experimental theater of the late sixties From the final years of the sixties and throughout the decade of the seventies some authors framed in the social theater of withdrawal begin to seek new forms of expression away from the realism. Thus, a kind of theatrical art which aims at renewing the drama. The most important features of this new theater are as follows: The authors seek to create a total spectacle, in which the argument goes to the background to give place to the sound effects, lights, the body language, projections on big screens, etc. This includes techniques of other shows, like the circus, puppet theater, cabaret, parades ... The realistic view of social theater disappears in favor of a symbolic drama, far removed from reality, the provision disappears traditional theater, that is because the show does not develop only on the stage facing the audience, the characters often symbolic, represent concepts or institutions rather than individuals. Nonverbal communication is as important or more than the verbal. These new theater groups base their proposals on current foreign pilot dramatic, this experimental drama in Spain begins to walk through the creation of a large number of independent groups of theater, away from commercial channels, like the Catalans "tricycle"Fernando Arrabal (1932) Spanish writer is best known abroad today. Exiled in France, writes in both French and Spanish, with great success. His plays are characterized by a mix of surreal elements, grotesque and absurd, always in search of provocation. According to the author, the ingredients involved in his works are the confusion, humor, terror, chance and euphoria. Called the set of his works theater panic (derived from the Greek god Pan). It covers topics such as eroticism, opposition to war and tyranny or the absurdity of religion. From the eighties to the present the past twenty years in Spain has been a proliferation of new authors, who are mixed with existing ones. Thus, we find a variety of theatrical trends, with established authors who represent the same time as other novice. Playwrights as important as Sastre, Antonio Gala, Francisco Fernando Arrabal snows or see their works, in varying degrees, continue to date.



THE THEATRE IN THE FIRST HALF OF S. XX

In the early twentieth century were triumphant theatrical trends of the late XIX .. The commercial theater had called the bourgeoisie as a loyal and was intended without further distraction, ie the authors of this type of theater do not pose major moral conflict in their works, but more or less friendly arguments aimed at middle-class elegant of the century. Against the majority view regarding the taste of the spectators, there was a kind of theater innovator and, therefore, minority. Its aim was to avoid the vulgarity of the commercial theater. Authors such as Azorín , Unamuno and Valle-Inclán worked to change the landscape of Spanish theater through symbolic or conceptual arguments, loaded with metaphorical elements. The neo-romantic drama dare Echegaray Echegaray (1832-1916) represents the late-Romantic drama. Achieved great success during his lifetime and the public loved the spectacle of his themes and the pathos of his arguments. So much so that he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1904. A year later, in 1905, the press held a tribute to Echegaray Echegaray Among the works of stresses primarily the great Galeotti (1881, 1908). The realistic theater success and quality of the realistic novel of the nineteenth century were overwhelming, but was not reflected in the theater. Authors such as Galdós Dicenta strove to develop a theater concerned and committed to contemporary issues and, in large part, I succeeded, but in no case reached the status of the realist novel. This trend theater entered the twentieth century and was strongly supported by the public.Benito Perez Galdos (1943-1920) with his theater not reached the quality of his novel, but developed a significant theater realistic continuing trends of the last third of the nineteenth. He dedicated the theater the last three decades of his life, because, as he said, Galdós twenty-one premiered works during his lifetime. Production begins with three works that develop the same arguments that some of his novels: Reality (1892), The Crazed Woman Inside (1893) and Athens (1893). Grandpa (1904) is the best of their transposition of a novel a play. Galdós creates a new theater through the renewal of the dramatic structure, which is a novelty in front of the theater of the masses of the early twentieth century. The front of the theater modernist theater realistic Dicenta or Galdós , develops a kind of theater evasive tendencies fleeing reality. Features of the authors in this group are not homogeneous, although all found the same purpose: the attempt to renovate the theater, and their dignity and intellectual elevation. Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936) Leader of 98 Generation try to create an intellectual drama based on the development of abstract ideas through dialogue, in which the action is virtually nonexistent. The sets are simple, almost simplistic, and the action is outlined through a direct and clear language. In addition, his works are very few characters. Unamuno's titles, it is recalled Phaedra (written in 1910, released in 1918), The Other (written in 1926, released in 1932), Brother John (1929) and Medea (1933). José Martínez Ruiz, Azorín (1873 -1967) In the same sense as Unamuno, Azorín theater begins its renewal through experimentation and innovation in the form, although it remains ideologically conservative positions. Azorín breaks with reality and surrealism is firmly committed. Among his works are Old Spain (1926). The main topics are Azorin over time, death and happiness .. Ramón del Valle-Inclán (1866-1936) Among the authors framed in 98, in addition to those already seen, especially outstanding theater of one of the best playwrights, if not the best-of twentieth century Spanish literature: Valle-Inclán. The originality of the Valley Theatre is unmatched in our literature and its attempts to renew as a result are discovering new ways of expression. The expressionism of his arguments leads to the development of the grotesque, heavily represented by some of his best works. It is not easy classification Valley theater because of its variety and complexity. The first group of farce involves the appearance of the grotesque in the work of Valle, who forgets everything beautiful in the world to enter a degraded environment and flawed. This trend was exacerbated by the Divine words tragicomedy Pedro Muñoz Seca (1891-1936) Muñoz Seca is remembered primarily for his work Don Mendo's revenge,. In this work, historical and poetic theme is full of funny and humorous elements. This is a theater halfway between the historical avoidance of modernist poetic drama and theater and comedy of manners, for example, the brothers Alvarez Quintero.The theater of mass addition to the previous theatrical trends in the first half of the twentieth century developed a type of theater that attracts audiences flock to the state rooms. This type of theater is aimed primarily at the upper classes, that is, the gentry, and becomes the main leisure activity for this period. Jacinto Benavente (1866-1954) The author who best represents this trend is not doubt Jacinto Benavente. Since 1894 publishes The nest of another, is gaining a loyal type of their arguments conservatives open to renewal. The seal becomes unmistakable Benavente and his theater is appreciated and valued over any other because of their technical skill and finesse. Usually introduce some criticism or irony in order to denounce a very cordial, the vices and negative aspects of their society. It is precisely this criticism is directed to social classes that follow: the aristocracy and gentry, but the tone is usually superficial and rarely moralizing. With this, Benavente gets to be the leading playwright of his time while the public criticism that follows, but without offending him. The Machado brothers wrote seven works in collaboration between 1926 and 1932. Five of them in verse: Misfortunes of Fortune (1926), Juan de Manara (1927y a prose: The man who died in the war (released in 1941). This is a very popular theater of the taste of the time, although today has lost much of its value and we can say that did not contribute to the renewal of Spanish theater, or the prestige of their authors. The action is low and is often substituted for the narrative that the characters do what occurs. Poncela Jardiel Enrique (1901-1952) contributes to raising the quality of the comic theater since the late twenties. Titles like a spring night without sleep (1927), Four hearts with brake and reverse (1936) makes it possible the principal playwright of the era, along with Benavente, so that gets represented on a regular and theaters attract all kinds of audiences. The drama revolves around bourgeois poetic comedy, with elements and experimental manners. Poncela Jardiel continues to succeed on stage after the Civil War . The drama of the 27 authors of poetry is the genre most cultivated by the authors of the Generation of '27, although not the only one. Some of them are also engaged in theater federico García Lorca (1898-1936) Lorca is, without doubt, the best representative of the theatrical trend of this generation, and one of the leading playwrights in the history of our literature. In fact, if one had to an author from the first half of the twentieth century, it would Lorca. His works are still represented today with the same success as in the thirties and studies on the plays Lorquian proliferate throughout the world. In their works, Lorca pays special attention to the female world, as well as frustrated love, or love impossible. He begins his play with The Curse of the Butterfly (Two plays have been classified as parts of Granada, since they are in the homeland of the author. Mariana Pineda (1923, released in 1927), Doña Rosita the Spinster (1935) The great works of Lorca are three rural tragedies, focusing on the female world. In 1936, shortly before being killed, Lorca published his great masterpiece:The House of Bernarda Alba .. Rafael Alberti (1902-1999) Alberti also devotes part of his work to the theater. His most important work is the scarecrow (1944), with grotesque elements in the style of Valle-Inclan . Surreal is his uninhabited Man (1930), tragedy of creation, life and lure of the man condemned to death. Already in the second half of the twentieth century, Alberti wrote Night of War in the Prado Museum (1956), by written policy issue during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Miguel Hernández (1910-1942) Author near those of 27, has an appreciable enough drama, but fairly soon. Three works composed in verse with influences from the mystery plays of Calderón: Who has seen and who sees you and shadow of what they were (1933), The farmer of more air (1937) and Pastor of Death (1937). Moreover, we note the series of short pieces of prose called Theater of War (1937), which consists of the tail, the man, shelter and seats. These works are written with a clear political purpose and are themselves carriers of the republican ideology of the author.

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