PHILIP LARKIN:-A Girl in Winter (1957),-The Less Deceived (1955),-New Lines (1956),-The Whitsun Weddings (1964),-High Windows (1974). SAMUEL BECKETT: novels stripped of plot & character development; Symbolic and allegoric:-Molloy (1951),-Malone Dies (1956),-Watt (1958),-The Unnamable (1960),-How It Is (1961),-Imagination Dead Imagine (1965). GEORGE ORWELL:-Homage To Catalonia (1938),-Animal Farm (1945),-Burmese Days (1935),-Keep the Aspidistra Flying (1936),-The Road to Wigan Pier (1937). V.S.NAIPAUL:-Miguel Street (1959),-A House for Mr. Biswas (1961),-In A Free State (1971),-A Bend in the River (1979). NADINE GORDIMER:-The Conservationist (1974),-The Pickup (2001). SALMAN RUSHDIE:-Grimus (1975),-Midnight’s Children (1981),-Shame (1983),-The Satanic Verses (1988),-The Moor’s Last Sigh (1995),-The Ground Beneath her Feet (1999),-Shalimar The Clown (2005),-The Enchantress of Florence (2008).
''PIKE'': THEME:It Was based around nature;highlighting the beauty & brutality of Animals.He used animals as a metaphor to depict his views of life to The reader. ANALYSIS:It Is free verse;for it has no particular rhyme scheme.It's composed of 11 stanzas comprising of quatrains. The first seven stanzas are Focusing the vicious aspects of the Pike & and the gloominess of Its environment;bringing forth the vile nature of this underwater Predator.On the other hand,the final 4 stanzas,focusing on the Poet,reflect an eerie & mystrious atmosphere from an outsider's View of the Pike's habitat.In the process Hughes depicts ''man''as Being a disturbance to the world of nature. Pike By Ted Hughes is a poem in which the persona's observation of the Natural world provokes the realization of how human beings have been Wrongly imposing their own angle of vision and interpretation to the World of animals, where nothing of human perspective and Understanding can apply. The persona begins with an objective Description of the fish: ‘Pike, three inches long, perfect/ Pike in All parts, green...Killer from the egg’. The description is, However punctuated with thoughtfulness. The title focuses immediate Attention on the creature’s under scrutiny and on the natural World, which informs most of Ted Hughes's work. The poem can be Divided into three parts and three changing perspectives. Ted Hughes Has used the natural world as habitations where the human species are Only one of the thousands of inhabitants and are in many ways not as Powerful as they would like to believe. Hughes’s poetry dwells on The innate violence in the natural world and on instinctive predatory Behavior; yet he sees to view it as appropriate. He attempts to Reconcile what at first appears to be a horrible violence in nature. Perhaps human beings are no different from a creature such as the pike, driven by impulse and appetite in a universe that follows no Moral law but eat or be eaten. Hughes clearly views the pike as a Creature that belongs in its water world, an animal that exemplifies Survival of the fittest. The fish is a part of the natural world in Which it feeds. The pike shares the colors of the water, the weeds, The pond bottom, and the shadows; it is in harmony with and a Necessary part of the world, but it is a type of creature that many Will view as unwholesome because of its very drive to survive. Hughes Clearly believes that the pike belongs where it is and has a ‘right’ To behave as it does, no matter the violence, for it follows a Naturally preordained path, instincts that drive it even when the Fish is only a three inch fry: pike are ‘killers from the egg’. Those who find the fish’s appetite and killer instinct unsettling Do not see the world as Hughes does; to them, killing to survive is Repugnant. Hughes, on the other hand, expresses subtle admiration for The one pike out of three that remained alive in his aquarium prison, Having outlived…. And later …. Its kin. The conventional tone of ‘pike’ serves as an effective device for Hughes to heighten the Tension and impact of the poem’s violence. Hughes choice of Language is simple: with few polysyllabic words; his phrases are Stark, almost bare –without the frills that people seem to need in Order to escape from the brutal realities of living. Such simplicity Allows Hughes to make ‘Pike’ a highly visual poem. His Descriptions evoke sharp images for the reader in which the fish Becomes tangible. One can see the water, see the weeds, and sense the Presence of the pikes as it blends in, waiting to lunge at its Unsuspecting quarry. The descriptions are rhythmic, lulling the Reader and allowing the final stanzas to take on additional sinister Imports. The Waste Land: The Poem begins with a section entitled “The Burial of the Dead”. In It, the narrator, perhaps a representation of Eliot himself, Describes the seasons. Spring brings "memory and desire", And so the narrator's memory drifts back to times in Munich, to Childhood sled rides, and to a possible romance with a “hyacinth Girl”. The memories only go so far, however. The narrator is now Surrounded by a desolate land full of “stony rubbish”. He Remembers a fortune-teller named Madame Sosostris Who said he was “the drowned Phoenician Sailor” and that he Should “fear death by water”. Next he finds himself on London Bridge, surrounded by a crowd of people. He spots a friend of his From wartime, and calls out to him.