Is the science that deals with the biological aspects of humans and their behaviour as members of a society. Its area of activity covers three dimensions: the biological dimension, the cultural dimension and philosophical dimension of the human being:
a) Biological anthropology studies the anatomical and physical transformations experienced by humans throughout their biological evolution, as well as their origin and differentiation as a species in the animal world.
b) Sociocultural anthropology studies human beings from their relationships with other living beings. His research deals with the comparative study between different social systems and different types of group behaviour.
c) Philosophical anthropology tries to establish, in line with science, the place of human beings in the world, their origin and nature, but focusing on understanding human beings as persons in terms of values, rights, freedoms and equality.
- THE BIOLOGICAL DIMENSION OF THE HUMAN BEING
Creationism. This theory asserts that the world and all the living things were created by God from nothingness. This theory is the basis of many religious doctrines, not only of Christianity.
1) All living species were created separately by God from nothingness in the beginning of times. So they are not related nor derive ones from others.
2) God created mankind in his own image. So the human being plays a special role in the divine creation.
Fixism. Pseudo-scientific theory formulated by Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) which states that species, both plant and animal, do not evolve, but remain unchanged in time.To explain the fact, as evidenced by the fossils, of the disappearance of certain species and the emergence of new ones, fixism was complemented with the catastrophist explanation (catastrophism) developed by Georges Cuvier.
- Lamarck and the inheritance of acquired characteristics
The law of the use or disuse of the organs. In every animal which has not passed the limit of its development, a more frequent and continuous use of any organ gradually strengthens, develops and enlarges that organ, and gives it a power proportional to the length of time it has been so used;
The law of the inheritance of acquired characteristics. All the acquisitions or losses provoked by nature on individuals, through the influence of the environment, and hence through the influence of the predominant use or permanent disuse of any organ are preserved by reproduction to the new individuals which arise.