Theory of roman laws

Classified in History

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             3. THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
  1. This war was caused because of the cinflict between Catholics and protestants in the Holy Roman Empire
  2. Gradually it developed into a more general conflict for Europe political dominance
The main problems of the war and the different participants:
  1. Protestants uprising in Bohemia: Some protestants nobles expelled the Cathilics and appointed a protestant kink in Bohemia. The emperor who was king of Bohemia too fought against them.
  2. Two sides were formed: 1. The emperor had the support of the German Catholics and the king os Spain and Portugal 2. The protestants allied with German but they were defeated
  3. Swedish participation: 1. After the Surrunder of Breda the German Catholic took the protestants possesions so the protestants King of Sweden came the their allied 2. This created a greater balanced of power and a peace treaty was signed
  4. France joined the conflict: After the sucreader os Breda, France feated the powerful Spain and Holy Roman Empire so though it was a CAtholic state, joined with protestants and defeated the Spanish troops in Rocroi
Conseuqences os the war: The war was taking a high toll on all the power. So they signed the Peace of Westfalia in 1648 and the war ended. 
  1. The Spanish monarchy lost their dominance over Europe
  2. The Northern provinces of the low countries become independent and a great trading and naval power
  3. The Soverignty of the German states was recogsined. Religious tolerance and limits on the power held by the Emperor was established
  4. Sweden became the dominant state of the Baltic Coast
  5. FRance obtained territoreis in the Holy Roman Empire and became the leading power in Europe
4. Absolutism

Absolutism: Political system, all the power was held by the king. During The EArly Modern Age the KIng Louis XIV (1643-1715) was an absolute France Monarchy.

Caracteristics of the reign of Louis XIV: 
  1. The king had unrestricted power. He made the laws and governed through decreased
  2. He had a large court of advisor who lived with him in the luxurious palace of Versalles
  3. He created a centrallised state by incrising the number of officials aciting under his power: secretaries, police, mayors, magistrates or judges and a board of governors under The Prime Minister or Chanceller
  4. He gave the administratives officials who came from the burgoesi proffesional status
  5. He expanded the diplomartic corps
  6. He had extremlly well organised proffesional army with impresive weapons and deffensive fortress
  7. He intervened in the economy by introducing durties and creating royal workshops
The support of absolutism: 
  1. The french church: Absolute power was considered a divine right because the king was god´s representative
  2. Some thinkers considered absolute monarchy to be the best posible politicas system
The generalisation: Absolutism began to spread to the majority of the European states except England and Holland where parlamentary sysytem were introduced

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