Very thin blood vessels with very thin walls

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Carbon dioxide production can Be detected using an indicator. The heat produced by respiration can be Measured. The lungs are in the thorax (top part of body, its separated from the lower part by the diaphragm, lungs Are like big pink sponges and are protected by the ribcage, surrounded by the Pleural membranes) Breating in (intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract, thorax volume increases, this Decresases the pressure, drawing air in)Breathing Out(intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax, thorax volume increases, air Is forced out) You can investigate the effect of exercise on breathing rate. Alveoli carry out gas exchange in the body. (The primary function of the lungs involving the transfer of oxygen from inhaled Air into the blood and the transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood into the Exhaled air by diffusion) Alveoli are Specialised for gas exchange.(they give the lungs a really big surface Area, they have moist, thin walls (just one cell thick), they have a lot of Tiny blood vessels called capillaries) Smoking Tabacco:damages the walls inside alveoli, reducing surface.A for gas Exchange and leading to dieases, tar irritates the bronchi and bronchioles Causing the smoker cough and chronic bronchitis, tabacco smoke also contais Carcinogens, chemicals that lead to cancer. Blood has 4main components (plasma, Platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells) Plasma is the liquid bit of blood. Platelets are small fragments of Cells that help blood clot. Red blood cells have the job of carrying oxygen. Your Immune system deals with pathogens(microorganisms that cause disease)Phagocytes ingest Pathogens(phagocytes Detect anything foreign to the body)Lymphocytes Produce antibodies. Blood vessels are desiged for their function. (3types: ARTERIES: These carry blood away from heart, CAPILLARIES: these are involved in the Exchange of materials at the tissues, VEINS: these carry the blood to the Heart)ARTERIES carry blood under Pressure (heart pumps blood at high pressure so the artery walls are strong And elastic) CAPILLARIES are really Small (arteries branch into capillaries, they are really tiny, they carry Blood really close to every cell in the body to exchange substances with them)VEINS take blood back to the heart(capillaries eventually join up to from veins, the blood is at lower pressure In the veins so the walls don’t need to be as thick as artery walls) EXERCISE increases heart rate( when You exercise your muscles need more energy so you respire more)  

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