Time of useful consciousness

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Processes of Memory
o Memory: the capacity to retain and retrieve information
o Storage: retention of information
o Retrieval: calling up stored information
o Both processes must be working correctly in order for us to remember something
o Prior to storage, memory must first be encoded in the brain at the actual time the event happens
o Effortless encoding: occurs automatically
o Effortful encoding: requires practicing information (rehearsal)
o Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed a three-stage model (a.K.A. Dual store model)
o (insert image here)
o Three different parts of our memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
o In the process of memory storage/retrieval, info may pass through each of these stages in different orders
o Sensory memory: immediate info from the five senses we are not always aware of (taste, touch, sight, smell, hearing)
o Auditory info retained in this stage for 2 sec
o Visual info retained for .25 sec
o Very large capacity
o Short-term memory (a.K.A. Working memory): conscious processing of information (things we are specifically thinking about in the moment)
o Info enters from sensory register (any experience of outside world, e.G. Reading a book) or from long-term memory (for when trying to recall specific things, e.G. The answer to a test question)
o Info retained for 30 sec
o Limited capacity: average of 7 items can be kept in mind at once, but generally no more than 9 or no less than 5
o We can use several different strategies to increase retention time of things in our short-term memory

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