# Who said "the total mass of reactants equals the total mass of the products"

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1. Alkali metal (Group IA) compounds are soluble.

2. Ammonium (NH4+) compounds are soluble.

3. Nitrates (NO3-), chlorates (ClO3-), and perchlorates (ClO4-) are Soluble.

4. Most hydroxides (OH-) insoluble EXCEPT alkali metal hydroxides And Ba(OH)2. Ca(OH)2 is slightly soluble.

5. Most chlorides (Cl-), bromides (Br-) or iodides (I-) are soluble. EXCEPT those containing Ag+, Hg+2, and Pb+2.

6. Carbonates (CO3-2), phosphates (PO4-3) and sulfides (S-2) are Insoluble. EXCEPT alkali metals and ammonium ion.

7. Most sulfates (SO4-2) are soluble. CaSO4 and Ag2SO4 slightly soluble. BaSO4, HgSO4 and PbSO4 insoluble.

Strong Acids: /// Partial Pressure: (P1+P2+P3…) or (n1+n2+n3...)(RT/V)

HCl - hydrochloric acid /// Avogadro's # 6.0221415 × 1023 Mol-1

HNO3 - nitric acid /// (Work) W = - pressure * change in Volume

H2SO4 - sulfuric acid /// (heat absorbed or given off) q = m s (change In T);

HBr - hydrobromic acid /// Change in E = q + W

HClO4 - perchloric acid /// nP= dRT Mol*pressure=density*R*temp

HClO3 - chloric acid /// ^^^ where R = 0.08206 mol atm L / g K ^^^

Effusion: Effusion Rate A / Effusion Rate B = sqrt(MB)/sqrt(MA) → M = molar mass

U Root mean square = sqrt(3RT/M) ; M = mass in kg ; R = 8.314 (J/mol K)

For Percent masses: divide %mass by molar mass then divide those by Smallest of the given values

Heat Of formation: (Ʃ heat of formation of products) – (Ʃ heat of Formation of reactants)