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SYNTACTIC ROLES OF ADVERBS: Modifying adjectives: Adverbs normally precede the adj they modify: I’m really hungry. Exceptions: adverbs enough and ago: I’m hungry enough to.../I eat a long ago.Common adv+adj combination: most frequent in conversation, the most frequent combination: degree adverb: really, quite, too, pretty, very, real + adj: bad, good, nice, quick, the resulting expressions are evaluative with vague reference. Academic prose has more diversity in adv+adj combination, as in conv the most common adv modifiers are degree adv: quite, more, very, although the co-occurring adj express specific qualites rather than general (different, difficult, important).Modifying other adverbs:both adv together form an adv phrase: really fat.Less common that modifiers of adjectives, although there are some extremely common patterns, especially in conv: pretty/so/very/ too much; right now, pretty soon, right t/here, much better/moreUsed in conv and acad to describe amount/intensities, or for qualifying a comparison that’s being made: a much more...In conv are also used for time and place: right now, right hereModifying other elements (most occur as premodifiers, when identifying the locatin of a noun phrase they occur as postmodifiers: in the example above): noun phrases: quite a surprisepronoun: almost nobody predeterminer: about half prep phrase: right into particle of phrasal verb: right into numeral: approximately other measurement expressions: roughlyAs complements of prepositions:  Normally denote time: since then, before now, under thereAs clause elements: adverbials:3 major types:circumstance: add info abut the action or state described in the clause, give details (time, manner, and place: he jumped up quickly and rather frightened)stance: convey the speaker’s/writer’s judgment of the proposition in the clause: definitely. Linking: connect sketches of text: therefore, however. Adverbs standing alone:  Possible in conv, can serve as complete utterance, can also serve to express or emphasize agreement: definitively, totally.. Sometimes are related by ellipsis to previous utterancesCan be used as questions: really? Seriously? SEMANTIC CATEGORIES OF ADVERBS: Place: express distance, direction, or position: there, far.Time: express position in time, frequency, duration and relationship: now, already, always.Manner: give info about how action is performed, many of them have –ly suffixes, taking their meaning from the adj they come from: quickly, fact, well.  Can also be used as modifiers, giving a description that is integrated into a noun phrase: ...[Morgan[coolly talking about...]Degree: describe the extent of a characteristic, can be used to emphasize that a characteristic is either greater or less than some typical level: slightly, almost. Amplifiers/intensifiers: increase intensity, some modify gradable adj and indicate degrees on a scale (extremely, so, very, more). Others indicate an endpoint on a scale (absolutely, totally, completely and quite (sense of completely). In exclamatory sentences: how cruel! In conv used to convey irony. When used as amplifiers some manner adv can lose their literal meaning (awfully (very), perfectly) Dimisnishers/downtoners: decrease the effect of the modified item (less, slightly, rather, quite (to some extent), somewhat)Choices among degree adv as modifiers: conv: use many informal amplifiers (bloody, damn, totally, absolutely, real, really). Acad: more formal amplifiers (extremely, highly, entirely, fully). Most common amplifiers in conv and acad (very, so), they occur with many different adj, normally positive words (good, nice), acad has a greater variety of adj that occurs with them (straightforward, pronounced)Additive/restrictive: additive: show that one item is being added to another (too, also). Context is often necessary to determine the intended comparison: my ...too. Restrictive: similar to additive adv, focus attention on a certain element of the clause. Serve to emphasize the importance of one part of the proposition, restricting the truth of it either primarily or exclusively to that part (only the ones..., especially...)Stance: divided into: epistemic: express a variety of meanings (certainty or doubt (probably), commenting on the reality or actuality of a proposition (actually), showing that a proposition is based on some evidence, without specifying the exact source (supposedly), showing the limitations on a proposition (typically), conveying imprecision (also called hedge adv) (kind of), many of these hedges occur as advbls, are often used to show imprecision of word choice (like) or with numbers, measurements, and quantities (approximator hedges; nearly, about)attitude:speaker’s/writer’s emotional attitude toward a proposition (unfortunately, surprisingly)style: comment about a speaker’s manner of speaking (frankly, sincerely, honestly, simply)Linking: make connections between sections of discourse, show how the meaning of the different sections are interrelated (thus, however, furthermore)Other meanings: kindly (courtesy adv), functions similarly to the insert please to mark a request as polite, most common in fiction, often in an ironic way. THE FUNCTION OF ADVERBS: They serve two major roles:Modifiers (integrated into an element of the clause), they normally modify an adjective or another adverb: I’m nearly sure that...Adverbials (can be an element of the clause), they serve typical adverbial functions, e.g. provide information about time, tell the level of certainty of a clause (surprisingly he gave us permission to...). Sometimes adv can function as both, modifiers (he did surprisingly well in the exam) or adverbials (surprisingly they let us use the dictionary in the exam) THE FORMATION OF ADVERBS: 4 main ways: Simple adverbs:Not derived from another word (well, too, rather, quite, soon and here)They can sometimes be used as another part of speech, e.g. fast (adj (fast runner/adv (fast enough)Some originated as compounds but the independent meaning of both parts is lost (all+ready) Compound adverbs: Formed by combining two or more elements into a single word: no+where, any+way  Adv derived by suffixation:  Many are formed by adding –ly to an adjective (most productive form): normallyNot all words ending in –ly are adverbs, they can be adj (weekly)Other common suffixes to form news adv: -wise (added to nouns: likewise, otherwise). –ward(s) (added to nouns and prep:  (seawards ,afterwards) Fixed phrases: are phrases that never vary in form: of course, kind of, at last. COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBS:  The same as adj, gradable adv can be marked as comparative or superlative with an inflection (faster) or by the use of more or most. Inflected comparative and superlative forms not so frequent as with adj, superlative forms of adv are very rare and comparatives are rarely used (harder, oftener) COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES:  Can be marked to show comparative and superlative degree, either inflectionally (better) or phrasally (by using more than one word: more difficult).One syllable adjectives normally take an inflectional suffix. The additional-er or –est can involve regular spelling changes to the adjective stem. The silent –e is omitted before adding the suffix (close/*closeest). The final –y is changed to –i, if a consonant precedes it (tidy-tidier). When an adj ends with a single vowel letter followed by a single consonant it usually double the final consonant (wet-wetter). Adj with irregular comparative and superlative forms: good-better-best, bad-worse-worst, far-further-furthest Longer adj often take phrasal comparison, using the degree adv more and most (more famous), this is an exception with some two-syllable adj like: likelier-more likely. COMPARATIVE CLAUSES AND OTHER DEGREE COMPLEMENTS: Complements of adjectives: Comparative and degree complements of adjectives can e prepositional phrases or clausesSix major types of degree complements: adj-er+than+phrase/clause  or more/less+adj+than+phrase/clause: The rooms were dirtier than the ones in the other hotel. Most common type, most common in acad the game was as boring as the one the food was so nice the girl was so risky as to ride her bike...too+adj+to-clause: the water was too cold to go swimmingadj+enough+to-clause: the beer isn’t cold enough to drinkComplements of adverbs:  the clauses and phrases which occur as degree complements with adj can also occur with adv, the adv functions as an advbladv-er+than-phrase/clause or more/less+adv+tha-phrase/clause: I’ll be back sooner than what you thinkas+adv+as-phrase/clause: as soon as I can I’ll go to visit youso+adv+that-clause: he rode so fast that he fellso+adv+as to-clause: he went so far away as to think about his past livetoo+adv+to-clause: it was to late to be calledadv+enough+to-clause: it is late enough to go in bed THE USE OF PHRASAL AND INFLECTIONAL MARKINGS: Inflectional marking by comparatives and superlatives is mot common in acad and least in conv. the comparative degree is used double as superlative, common inflected comparative adj: best, easier, older, higher, lower, greatest, smaller.Phrasal comparison: less common than inflectional marking. Most common in acad. Common phrasally marked comparative and superlative forms: more likely, more difficult, more important, most important.

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