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GROUPS
A vertical column of the periodic table are called groups. All items belonging to a group have the same valence, and therefore have similar characteristics or properties among themselves. For example, elements in group IA have valence 1 (one electron in its latest energy level) and all tend to lose that electron to the positive ions bind as +1. Items in the last group on the right are the noble gases, which have filled their final energy level (octet rule) and therefore are all extremely non-reactive.
Numbered from left to right, the groups of the periodic table are:
Group 1 (IA): the alkali metals
Group 2 (IIA): the alkaline earth metals
Group 3 (IIIB): Family of Scandium
Group 4 (IVB): Family of titanium.
Group 5 (VB): Family of vanadium
VIB Group: Family of chromium.
Group VIIB: Family of Manganese.
Group VIIB: Family of iron
Group IB: Copper Family
GrupoIIB: Family of Zinc.
Group 13 (IIIA): the earth
Group 14 (IVA): the carbonoideos
Group 15 (VA): the nitrogenoideos
Group 16 (VIA): the chalcogens or Chalcogen
Group 17 (VIIA): the halogens
Group 18 (VIIIA) Noble Gas

PERIODS
The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called periods. Unlike as in the case of groups of the periodic table, the elements of the same row have different properties but similar masses: all elements of a period have the same number of orbitals. Following this rule, each item is placed according to their electron configuration. The first period has only two members: hydrogen and helium, both have only the 1s orbital.

Blocks

Periodic Table divided into blocks.

The periodic table can also be divided into blocks according to the orbital elements that are occupying the outermost electrons.

The blocks are named after the letter refers to the outermost orbital: s, p, d and f. There could be more to fill other orbital elements, but have not been synthesized or discovered, in this case is continued to name them alphabetically.