UE law

Classified in Law & Jurisprudence

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Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen (1963) Case 26/62 in which the European Court of Justice  established that provisions of the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community were capable of creating legal rights which could be enforced by both natural and legal persons before the courts of the Community's member states. This is now called the principle of direct effect. The case is acknowledged as being one of the most important, and possibly the most famous development of European Union law.

The case arose from the reclassification of a chemical, by the Benelux countries, into a customs category entailing higher customs charges. Preliminary questions were asked by the Dutch Tariefcommissie in a dispute between Van Gend en Loos and the Dutch Tax Authority. The European Court of Justice held that this breached a provision of the treaty requiring member states to progressively reduce customs duties between themselves, and continued to rule that the breach was actionable by individuals before national courts and not just by the member states of the Community themselves.

Action of infringement. 258-260 TFEU


 The court of Justice has exclusive competence to determine whether a Member State has fulfilled its obligations under European Union law. It comprises obligations under both primary and secondary legislation.

It may have two procedures:

Administrative stage (reported complain) in which the State must request it beneath a period of two months.
Litigation stage a claim of the commission is given to the CJEU, who may; declare that the Member State concerned has breach EU (direct effect).
Un Estado puede legislar en aquellos ambitos calificados conforme al Art.3, 4 y 6 del TFUE como competencia complementaria.

En el consejo se vota mediante la mayoría cualificada (doble mayoría).

El parlamento Europeo debe estar formado por 751 miembros.

La UE esta compuesta por 7 instituciones. 28 países miembros.

El Parlamento Europeo es la única institución que puede cesar a un comisario.

La comisión Europea es responsable ante el tribunal de Justicia.

La personalidad jurídica de la UE fue reconocida en el tratado de Lisboa.

La distribución de competencias entre la UE y los Estados miembros se realiza en función del principio de proporcionalidad.

El umbral mínimo de Estados para que se pueda llevar a cabo una cooperación reforzada es de la mitad de Estados más uno. La cooperación reforzada no cabe en el ámbito de la educación.

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