1. Age of Dryden (restoration) till the death of Druden (1700)--> satire and drama. Theatres had been closed bc of being illegal and immoran by puritans but they opened thanks to royal support.
2. The Age of Pope-Swift (Golden Age of satire) till 1744. They represent satire. Augustan period till the death of Pope and Swift. Satire and the rise of the novel. They tried to kill the novel. The rise was illicit. It was an offensive reading sexual and physical explicit. They had nothing to do with the rise of the novel, but for the fact that they were anti-novelists, trying to destroy the aesthetic of novels. GT is a book of satire criticizing novels. They represent the cultural elite, not the popular culture.
3. Age of Johson. Sensibility or enlightment. Johnson never wrote a novel but in this period there is a consolidation of the novel. There were not first rank novelists. The rest of the novelists were women. So it had little reputation. Novels about women. The novel refined. Men complained about its similarity to women stuff like soap operas.
the century had mixed feelings. Not proud of the 18th century and the corruption but in general the high moral standards behavior of Victorian peple had nostalgia for the 18th century. Hogarth representations were very funny. Humour practiced by some writers. Fielding was the model borrowed by Victorian novelists such as Dickens. Immoran times 18th century. Historians; negativity and corruption of ancient regime (absolutismm), nostalgia about eccentricity and cosnervative satirial types. Age of Hoggart, he was a satirists in images, engravings ridiculing the behavoir of the english people. He criticizes the low classes drinking gin to stay wamt. Figure of John Bull. It was a ficitonal character invented to criticise traditional behavior of gentle men in the country without manners. He became a symbol of English pride in WWI and WWII. Historians looked for from high politics to other areas. Not only facts byt also opinions. They looked for the true history the history of the normal people, not the history of oliticians. Whigs became fashionable in order to show power and respectability. The writers of the period were important bc they criticised they world, the liberals, they were struggling, trying to ridicule each other, imitate each other.
stability was seen in Europe as an achievement, althoug Swift disliked his era. When Walpole, the Prime Minister, was in trouble, he bought members of the parliament to vote him. Nostalgia about eccentricity and conservcative satirical types: because they were more tyrannical, less democratic. They had a more tolerant attitude towards human beings, you could be more eccentric.
Contemporary outsiders. England was considered dynamic and progressive and a model for continental reformers. Developed a political system: mild but effetive governement reassuring combination of monarchical and republican politics. There was a society encouraging to have business. Aristocracy investment. The sate collaborated with traders. Governement protecting the economy of entrepeneur. Industrialism or nation of shopkeepers, meaning presperity anf money. Making for commerce. An army to protect the commercial people around the world. Innovative brithish thought. Philosphoers and scientist became influential, notions of freethinking. People with more freedom