Classified in Geography

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Total Costs/SMH = (fixed costs) + (variable costs * UT%) + (labor cost)

Fixed Costs = (depreciation) + II&T
Depreciation = ((Purchase Price) - (Purchase Price*Salvage Value%)) / (Useful Life*SMH/year)
II&T = (II&T% * AVI) / (SMH/year)
M&R = (M&R% * Depreciation)/(Utilization %)           F&L = (Fuel Consumption * Fuel Price)(1 + Lube %)
Labor Costs = Wage rate(1 + Overhead & Fringe%)

Productivity (tons/SMH) = tons/pmh * Utilization%
Harvesting cost ($/ton) = (Total Costs/SMH) / (Productivity)

Break Even Production Level (BEP) = (Fixed Costs/day) / (Selling Price/ton - Variable Costs/ton)
FC/day = (total FC/year) / (working days/year)
VC/ton = (total VC) / (total tons)
Culvert Diameter...
C = 1 for impervious, .7-.8 steep slopes moderate runoff, .5-.6 moderate slopes dense cover, .3-.4 gently rolling ag land, .2 for flat highly pervious soils
Cross-sectional area of pipe required in ft2 (A) = (runoff coefficient (C) * (watershed acres (M))0.75 
D = SQRT(A/.005454)      *always round UP to the nearest even numbers.*

Volume of Gravel ft3 = (miles of road) (5280 ft/mi) (width of road feet)(gravel surface inches / 12 in/foot)
Tons of Gravel = (Volume of Gravel ft3 * Gravel weight lbs/ft3) / (2000 lbs/ton)
Cost = tons of gravel * $/ton
Drainage options... Water bars: Best for closed roads and skid trails □ Not designed to be driven over □ Minimal maintenance if constructed properly □ Easy to install with bull dozer □ Can't drive over or else will damage it
Broad-based dips: Permanent roads with skid trails □ Can be used with or without ditches □ Not effective when road grade > 10% □ Gravel often necessary on high volume roads □ Must maintain dip - easily lost due to traffic and sloppy grading Longer approaches and flatter slope for low-clearance vehicles And/or high travel speeds     Rolling dips: Carry water from inside to outside of roads □ Gently sloping roads □ Light to moderate traffic □ Difficult to construct properly □ Should be designed with vehicle clearance and wheelbase   Water turnouts/diversion ditches: Permanent roads, temporary roads, and skid trails □ Used to divert water from road to skid trail □ Diversion ditch should always go down hill □ Locate water turnout away from streams and wetlands □ Should trap sediment at end of turnout   Cross drain culverts: Divert water from uphill side of road to downhill side □ Often used with insloped roads Better than rolling dips or broad-based dips when traffic volume is High □ □ Culverts require maintenance to prevent clogging

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